Wednesday, September 28, 2011
PATANJALI YOGA SUTRAS = CH,2 : SADHANA PAADHA Vs.21, 22, 23 = WHAT HAPPENS TO UNIVERSE WHEN ONE PURUSHA IS LIBERATED?
CHAPTER.2 : SADHANA PAADHA
Vs.21, 22, 23
What really is Drisyam? Drisham is the Universe, which we experience – and is made out of the three Gunas of Sathva, Rajas and Thamas.
These Gunas make it either stable and illuminated (by Sathva), or active (by Rajas) or inert (by Thamas) – because of the imbalance in the three Gunas and dominance of one or the other of the 3 Gunas.
The universe exists for 2 purposes – (i) for experience and (ii) for liberation - of the Purusha (the Self).
Universe is like a training school - where the Karma has to be extinguished by experience of the universe. Then, the Purusha can liberate himself from the experience of the universe and know his true self.
The universe exists first in its Avyaktha state. Then, it comes to the stage of the Mahat or universal intelligence state. From then, it proceeds to the individual intelligence, then, the subtle elements and then, finally to the gross forms. Thus, the formation of universe from Avyaktha state to identified state, to fine or subtle state to gross states proceeds in a defined manner. This Universe in all its states - forms the Drisyam for the Drasta, or Purusha.
The Drasta is by himself pure and unchanging. But, the contact with Prakrithi through the Buddhi and the experience of the Prakrithi (Drisyam) – creates the impression that all changes are occurring in the Purusha.
Patanjali is telling us in so many verses, the qualities of the Drisyam (Universe) and the Drasta (the self). The following verses also expand on the same theme. An absolute clarity is needed between the two – so that, subsequent yoga vidya proceeds with clarity and in a confusion-less manner.
thad-artha eva drishyasya atma
Ø Thath : for that
Ø artha = purpose
Ø eva = only
Ø drishyasya = of the seen (Drisyam)
Ø atma = essence
Drisyam or Universe is basically inert. It is not created for the sake of itself. No inert matter is created for the sake of itself or for the use of another inert matter. An inert matter is useful only to a chatinya swaroopam or conscious being.
In other words, Drisyam is made for the use of the Drasta for his experience and for his liberation.
kritha-artham prathi nashtam api
anashtam thath anya
Ø kritha-artham = Drasta - after his purpose is accomplished
Ø prathi = towards
Ø nashtam = destroyed
Ø api = although
Ø anashtam = does not cease
Ø thath = that
Ø anya = for others
Ø saadhaaranathvaath = because it is common to all
We say that the world is for the Purusha. In other words, the Drisyam is created for the use of the Drasta. But, if a Drasta or Purusha attains liberation after experiencing the Samsaara through the Universe, what happens to the Drisyam or the Universe. It is no more needed for this Purusha. Then, will it exist further or not?
In Yoga Sasthra, Drasta is not one but many. There are many conscious beings or many purushas – which is the way sankhya and yoga look at it. This is the truth in the unliberated state. What happens after liberation – is a different aspect.
In Vedanta philosophy – the self is only one – but expresses himself as “reflections in the Buddhi”, which are called Chidhabhasas. On liberation, the Purusha no more identifies with the Chidhabhasa.
Chidhabhasa is nothing other than the reflection of Purusha in the Buddhi, by which, the Buddhi attains the quality of Chaitanyam or consciousness. Purusha imparts to the Buddhi and through Buddhi to the manas etc – his quality of Chaitanyam. Other wise, the Sthoola Sareera, Sookshma Sareera and even the Karana Sareera – are part of Prakrithi and are inert matter.
Therefore - in Yoga Sastra – we assume that there are many purushas with the quality of Chaitanyam or consciousness. If one of the purushas is liberated after his experience with Drisyam, he only is liberated from the Drisyam. He has achieved all that he has to achieve. His purpose with Drisyam is over. He is now called Krithartha, one who has achieved his purpose. For him, world is no more needed.
But, there are so many purushas who are not yet liberated. For them, the Drisyam is still required. Therefore, the Universe or Drisyam continues to remain - for their experience and liberation.
sva svaami saktyoh
Ø sva = of being owned
o svaami = one who possesses
o saktyoh = of the powers
o svaroopa = of own form
o upalabdhi = recognition
o hethuh = cause
o samyogah = union (of Drasta with Drisyam)
What is Samyoga? It is the union or the apparent union of Drasta with Drisyam. Drasta is the experiencer and is in fact separate from the Drisyam, which is inert, and is the one experienced by the Drasta.
But, in the process of experiencing the Drisyam, the Drasta identifies with Drisyam. Unless, there is a Drisyam, there is no Drasta. What else can he experience other than the Drisyam. Likewise, there is no Drisyam – unless there is a Drasta.
The identification of the Drasta with Drisyam results in Samsaara – or the experience of sorrows and pleasures by the Drasta.
But then, this experience only further leads the Drasta to liberation from Samsaara and the knowledge of his own real self. Knowing his real form or real self is the liberation. This comes when the Drasta disengages from his identification with the Drisyam.
This is why – Patanjali has said that the universe, as Drisyam, is created for the sole purpose of the Drasta – first, for his experience, and then, through that experience, for his liberation from the same.
Patanjali is aiming in so many verses – to ensure that we first know at least theoretically that You and I are Drastas and not Drisyam – and that currently we are experiencing and identifying with the Drisyam. Patanjali is also making the aim of these Yoga sutras very clear. It is for our liberation from our identification with the Drisyam.
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Sunday, September 25, 2011
CHAPTER.2 : SADHANA PAADHA
Vs.18, 19, 20
We have analyzed the five kleshaas (or five sorrows or difficulties) which are the major obstructions to our success in Yoga and in life.
These are Ignorance or avidya (Ignorance), asmitha (Ego), raaga (likes), dvesha (dislikes) and abhinivesha (love of death/fear of death).
The three stages in extinguishing the five kleshaas are –
(i) through thapas, bring them from their gross form to their subtle form
(ii) Resolve them into their causes and
(iii) extinguish them through Meditation
Our actions follow us in a cycle. Subtle impressions in the mind prompt us into various actions. On performing the actions, they leave further subtle impressions in the mind. These impressions further prompt us into specific actions.
These actions result in our birth, our length of life and the good and bad experiences we feel in life. Pleasure results to us from the past good and benevolent deeds done by us. Likewise, pain and suffering result from the past bad and wicked deeds done by us. Our pleasure and pain thus come from this baggage of punya (benevolent deeds) and apunya (wicked deeds).
But, the wise man sees sorrow only in every thing. Even the experience of sukham is preceded by duhkham in its anxious expectation, then, fear of its losing even when it is with us and sorrow for losing it when it is gone. But, the difficulty which is already gone is not with us any way. It is the one - to be attended by us. The difficulty now with us also is not the worst sorrow. The worst sorrow is about the difficulty that has not yet come. Because – we can prevent this aagami Karma – by our present actions. And, why why do feel so sorrowful frequently. The main cause of our sorrow is the coming into contact of the pure witness (the seer or the self) with the drisyam, the world of experience, through the manas, Buddhi etc. But, what really is Drisyam? The answer comes now.
prakasha kriyaa sthiti sheelam
bhootha indriya atmakam
bhoga apavarga artham
Ø prakasha = illumination, wisdom (representing Sathva guna)
Ø kriya = activity (Rajo guna)
Ø sthiti = steadiness, inertia (thamo guna)
Ø sheelam = possessing the nature of
Ø Bhootha = the five elements, including their Sthoola & Sookshma variations (earth, water, fire, air, space)
Ø indriya = sense organs of perceptions (includes jnana and karma indriyaas)
Ø atmakam = the manas
Ø bhoga = experience (of both sukha and Duhkha)
Ø apavarga = liberation, Mukthi or Moksha
Ø artham = for the purpose of
Ø drisyam = the seen (the experienced Universe)
Drisyam is the world of experience. But, Drisyam (or the universe) is not merely for experiencing it – but it is also for the liberation of the Purusha – who otherwise will immerse totally in its experience.
Drisyam consists of Sathva guna, through which it illuminates our mind, Rajo guna through it which it propels us into activity and Thamo guna through which it makes us still and full of inertia.
Drisyam consists of the five great elements which comprise the whole universe – namely, earth, water, fire, air and space.
These five elements exist in gross form and subtle form both. The Jnanendriyaas and karmendriyas are part of it in subtle form. The manas is also part of it, in still subtler form. The word atma used here does not refer to the pure self who is the Drasta. It refers to the manas (& anthahkaranam) which is a part of the drisyam only. It looks like the seer, or pure witness, until the real witness withdraws from them and starts seeing the Drisyam as pure witness. It is the coming together of this drisyam with the Drasta – that creates the cause of all sorrows (by mere identification of Drashta with the Drisyam).
But the Drisyam – even while being the cause of sorrows – can also be the liberator from the sorrows. The Drashta, if he keeps himself as pure witness, without identification with the Drisyam – is ever liberated – even while he may seem to be experiencing it. The Drashta can go through the world untouched by the Drisyam and its viles. But, any identification with it – drags the Purusha into its experiences and sorrows.
Here – another question which dogs our minds usually – is answered : What is the purpose of the world for us? Two(2) Purposes are mentioned. The world gives us the experience of itself. The world also can act as a liberator of our self from the same experience. It is not that world does it for us. We must do it for our self. Experience of the world is like a training ground. Liberation is the ultimate aim. You cannot get liberated until you know the experience. This is the beauty. Life itself is experience. No one can get liberated – without being born and without experiencing the world. He has to undergo his Karma in the process.
“Yoga says this world exists as a training school, a learning school -- don't avoid it and don’t try to escape from it. Rather live it, and live it so totally that you need not be forced again to live it. That's the meaning when we say that an enlightened person never comes back - there is no need.”- opines Osho.
Ø vishesha = specialized (5 elements,5 karmendriyaas, 5 jnanendriyaas and Manas = total of 16 thathvaas)
Ø avishesha = unspecialized (6 thathvaas : 5 elements in subtle or sooskhma form + aham thathvam)
Ø linga-matra = identification mark; the indicated (linga = mark; matra = only); Indicates Mahat thathvam or universal Intelligence
Ø alingani = that which is without even a mark or trace, undifferentiated subtle matter
Ø guna-parvani = Changing state of the gunas (guna = gunas of prakriti; parvani = level)
There are four states of the Drishyam (1) visesha (specialized or defined or gross) (2) Avisesha (non-specialised or undefined or subtle) (3) mere indictor or identification mark ony and (4) without even an identification mark or indicator
By the term "specialized or defined" we mean the gross elements, which we can sense. We can see, smell, hear, taste or touch and experience them with our senses.
By the term " non-specialised or undefined or subtle" we mean the very fine materials, which are also called the tanmatras, which we can not experience with the five senses.
By the term "the indicated only" , we mean the Buddhi or the intellect. "The indicated only" is the first manifestation of nature; from it all other manifestations proceed.
The last is "without even an indicator or the signless".
According to Yoga philosophy, which largely follows Sankhya system, in explaining the genesis of the universe, Nature is the material cause and also the efficient cause of the Universe. Initially – when the Sathva, rajas and thamo gunas are in perfect balance, it is in an AVYAKTHA state, in which – it is not experience-able; it is beyond any indicator or sign. This Avyakhta Prakrithi is however disturbed and an imbalance created between the three Gunas. The imbalance in the three gunas results in all creation, including the man.
When the perfect balance between the three Gunas is disturbed, creation into fine (or subtle) elements starts first and them the subtle elements combine to form gross elements. The highest form of this combination is called MAHAT, which is the Universal Intelligence. From this MAHAT proceeds further creation by various combinations of Sathva, Rajas and Thamas.
When Sathva guna is dominant – there is wisdom and illumination. When rajo guna prevails, there is activity. When Thamas is dominant, there is inertia and steadiness.
So, all the four states of the creation are modifications of the three Gunas.
drashtaa drishi matrah
suddhah api pratyaya anupashyah
Ø drashta = the seer
Ø drishi-matrah = power of seeing (drishi = seeing; matrah = power)
Ø suddhah = pure; no changes
Ø api = even though,
Ø pratyaya = the feeling, content of mind
Ø anupashyah = appearing to see
There is the Purusha principle – which is beyond all modifications and changes. It is Suddha – or pure. There is the Prakrithi principle which is subject to continuous modifications – and therefore not Pure.
The former never changes but the latter never ceases to change. Change is its very nature.
The interaction between Purusha and Prakrithi comes about at the interaction point – called Buddhi, which reflects the Purusha – as the power of experience. And this reflection is seen in buddhi or the intelligence when it comes to the manas level, which reacts in many ways to the various components of Prakrithi.
Buddhi, though not permanent like Purusha, also exists for eons or kalpa (huge number of years) – even while the bodies go on perishing and reforming.
The Drasta or the Seer is therefore really the Power behind the act seeing itself – but it appears to see or experience because, it is seen as the reflection in the buddhi. In Buddhi, the main characteristic is its continuous evolvement or modification, which gives it the knowledge of the Prakrithi.
Now 2 things happen in the Buddhi. The reflection of the Purusha happens in Buddhi and gives it all its powers of experience (seeing etc). The external Prakrithi is seen by it through the jnanendriyaas, manas etc. But, because the seeing happens du to the power of reflection of the Purusha in it – the mistaken impression arises that the experiencer and the one undergoing modifications is the Purusha.
Mind too has 3 states of Sathva, Rajas and Thamas – (i) to remain peaceful and contented - in Sathva; (2) to be discontented and forever in action and craving – in Rajas. Or (3) to be inert and still – unwilling to think, understand and act – in thamo guna.
We are bound and not free so far as intelligence is concerned – as it is a part of Prakrithi itself. Some day – its relationship is with Prakrithi and has to go back to it.
But, we are free as far as the soul is concerned. The soul or Purusha is not part of Prakrithi and is beyond all modifications and all laws of causation.
PS : There are some differences between Sankhya and vedanta versions - in the above discussions - but , as readers can see, when the practice of Yoga is undertaken, these differences become immaterial.
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Thursday, September 22, 2011
WORDS OF WISDOM
SADHGURU JAGGI VASUDEV
Dated : 22nd, Sept, 2011
The Last of the beautiful quotes of wisdom was published in this blog on 7th, March,2011. Since then, this Blog was examining many beautiful spiritual texts like Patanjali Yoga sutras, as readers are aware.
However, it is time again for some excellent quotes from Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev.
I am giving below 24 of them.
WORDS OF WISDOM
1. Of all the creatures, only a human being can explore and know the dimensions beyond the physical
2. Only when you are absolutely devoted to what you do, can you produce some thing significant in the world.
3. What we refer to as yoga is just a Technology to make your energies function by choice, not by compulsion
4. It is possible for every human being to be blissful, if you are willing to pay a little attention to how this human mechanism functions
5. The best thing that we can do for every other life on this planet is to reduce human reproduction
6. You do not have to pursue some thing intensely; you as a being should become very intense
7. Resentment, anger, hatred are poisons that you drink and you expect somebody else to die. Life does not work like that.
8. Meditation does not mean you have to grin every moment of your life, but to learn to let your bones smile
9. Until you allow yourself to blossom into a state of boundlessness, you should not be content, you must burn with discontent
10. When you feel complete within yourself on all levels – physically, mentally and spiritually – you are healthy; and it is not far away, but within
11. Logic is a horrible thing if it is in a rudimentary condition. If you refine your logic, it can be the way to your liberation.
12. Devotion is not a concept, not a certain kind of ideology, not a certain kind of act, it is the agent of dissolution
13. If thinking minds, questioning minds, doubting minds, are talking about faith, their whole life will become fake.
14. Every human being without exception is capable of living blissfully within himself
15. When a child enters your life, it is time to learn, it is not time to teach
16. Human life truly begins only when survival is taken care of. For all other animals, life ends with survival.
17. Devotion is a place where you do not exist; life just flows through you as a certain sweetness and beauty
18. If you knew the immensity of what it means to be human, you would not talk about God or Heaven
19. In spirituality, when we say growth, we are talking about becoming smaller; not just smaller – non-existent
20. Only when people begin to think beyond their own wellbeing, something beautiful is possible in the society
21. The Divine is constantly waiting at your doorstep to move in if only you allow the necessary space
22. It is not because there is God that devotion has come; because there is devotion, there is God
23. Your ideas need not have any thing to do with reality. Making conclusions is a sure way of not enhancing our perception
24. When you live for everyone, everyone takes care of you.. !
PS: Readers can find the earlier Great Quotes from Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev (and a few articles) = in the following URLs of this BLOG :-
Please enjoy all the above quotes - and please do make your comments, suggestions…etc- which will be gratefully received.
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