Monday, April 8, 2013




KAIVALYA PAADHA essentially deals with how the state of Samadhi transforms us.  It is a pointer to its essential characteristics. These last set of sutras describe the kaivalya, the liberation or enlightenment.

prasankhyaane api akuseedasya
sarvatha viveka khyateh
dharma-meghah samaadhih

Ø  prasankhyane = highest knowledge or total wisdom
Ø  api = even
Ø  akuseedasya = having no interest remaining
Ø  sarvathaa = always
Ø  viveka = clear discernment
Ø  khyateh = clarity
Ø  dharma-meghah= virtuous cloud
Ø  samaadhih = deepest state of meditation

Omniscience or total knowledge is what man seeks to attain as the highest state possible for him. But, for yogi, even this omniscient state holds no interest at all. He does not hanker for it, nor does he feel proud when he knows he has it. Thereby, the yogi exhibits the highest possible state of discrimination. The Samadhi which he is in, in  this state is called Dharma Megha Samadhi, or the Samadhi of the cloud of virtue. This renouncement of the exalted state of omniscience is called paravairagya or the ultimate renunciation. One can renounce all desires – and go on desiring for moksha. But, one can renounce even this desire for moksha. This is the state of absolute desirelessness. No desires what so ever – no desire even for Moksha. The desire for Moksha, or liberation is the ultimate desire and even this desire is renounced to make desirelessness complete.

This state is the state of the ultimate discrimination. And the yogi will now be in this state forever. Patanjali calls this state as Dharma Megha Samadhi. Dharma means virtues, megha means clouds; Samadhi means the still, flickerless state at the end of dharana and dhyana.

This dharma megha is going to remain flickerless and still with the yogi.  Dharma means virtues. All virtues have descended on the Yogi like a cloud from the sky. And, they will now remain still and flickerless with the Yogi.

Why is this Samadhi called a cloud? This cloud also covers the vision of the Yogi from the clear sky of kaivalya. Even if it is of virtues, it still covers the essential kaivalya, his total liberation, from the Yogi. So, to that extent, this too remains as the last barrier that the yogi must come out of.
Vs. 4.30
tatah klesha karma nivrittih

Ø  tatah = thereafter
Ø  klesha = painfulness, afflictions
Ø  karma = actions from deep samskaras
Ø  nivrittih = cease

Patanjali says – if the yogi goes beyond even this barrier of virtuous cloud or Dharma megha, then, all the deepest impressions or samskaras in him dissolve totally and all the kleshas or sorrows, pains and afflictions cease totally and absolutely. Dharma megha Samadhi is thus the last barrier to cross for the successful yogi.

Vs. 4.31
tadaa sarva aavarana mala
apetasya jnanasya anantyaat
jneyam alpam

Ø  tadaa = then
Ø  sarva = all
Ø  aavarana = veils
Ø  mala = imperfections
Ø  apetasya = removed
Ø  jnanasya = knowledge
Ø  anantyaat = infinite
Ø  jneyam = to be known
Ø  alpam = little, almost nothing

For the first time, the state of total enlightenment is being hinted by Patanjali.

The cover that has clouded the Jnanam is now totally removed. It is shining in its pristine purity and totality now.  The Jneyam, the thing to be known is now almost nothing. Or alpam. In this state, the Purusha starts functioning by himself, and mind merely remains without clouding his experience and vision. Purusha sees and experiences the reality totally. There are no barriers whatsoever for him now. It can also be said, he is now THE REALITY himself.

Vs. 4.32

tatah krutaarthaanaam
parinama krama
samaptih gunaanaam

Ø  tatah =  by that
Ø  kruta = fulfilled, completed
Ø  arthaanaam = purpose
Ø  parinaama = transformation
Ø  krama = ordered sequence
Ø  samaaptih = terminates
Ø  gunaanaam =  three gunas of sattva, rajas, tamas

Now the three primary gunas have totally fulfilled their purpose for him. They are no more needed for the enlightened yogi. He has transcended all their use.

Ordinarily, the three Gunas are the ones, which go on creating an ordered sequence of events for the sadhaka, which he has to go through all his life. Now, the Yogi has transcended that ordered sequence of events and transformations. There is no more need for them in his life. He is beyond all the three Gunas. Therefore, having fulfilled their part in his life, the gunas recede back into the essence from which they have come. They, which means, the world of three Gunas, no more undergoes any transformation in the experience of the enlightened Yogi.

It can be described like this : The Purusha had jumped from the Divine into the world of prakruthi. There he learnt all the lessons that prakruthi had to offer; He was covered by the Maya, of the three Gunas, which were constantly transforming his world. But, as yogi, he began coming out from one barrier after another, set for him by the Maya. The ultimate barrier of dharma megha also having been transcended, the Purusha is back into the divine. The whole prakruthi of the three Gunas, cannot any more, set any barriers for him.  He is now a muktha Purusha.

Vs. 4.33

ksana pratiyogee parinama
aparaanta nirgraahyah kramah

Ø  ksana = the moment
Ø  pratiyogee = uninterrupted succession
Ø  parinaama = transformation
Ø  aparaanta = at the end-point
Ø  nirgrahyah = recognizable
Ø  kramah = ordered succession

Every change is clearly perceived only at the end of the transformation process. Not, when the change was happening from moment to moment. It is true that each moment presents a point of change in any ordered sequence of changes. But, the perception of the change is really clear, only when the sequence ends. All the three Gunas need to undergo the full change  - and then, the full change becomes comprehensible.
This implies two things. (1) Every moment a part of the total change is taking place. But, in that moment, the change is not comprehensible. (2) At some point, a total change has been completed – and it becomes perceptible and comprehensible.

Why is Patanjali saying this obvious fact here? We need to connect it with previous sutras. For the Yogi, the three Gunas have stopped their transformation process. This means, the total change is visible, experience-able, and knowable for the Yogi. But, the same has not happened for all others. For all others, the change continues; the transformation continues; and every moment, there is change; they are not able to see the change that will come tomorrow. But, not so, for the yogi who has gone beyond the dharma megha Samadhi. For him, there is no further transformation, which is hidden from him.  All changes are known to him.

Vs. 4.34

purusha artha sunyaanaam
gunaanaam pratiprasavah
kaivalyam svaroopa pratisthaa va
chiti shaktih iti

Ø  purusha = pure consciousness
Ø  artha = purpose
Ø  sunyaanaam = without, nothing
Ø  gunaanaam = three gunas of sattva, rajas, tamas
Ø  pratiprasava = resolving
Ø  kaivalyam = liberation, enlightenment
Ø  svaroopa = own form
Ø  pratistha = established
Ø  va = or
Ø  chiti = consciousness
Ø  shaktih = power
Ø  iti = this, at the end

The whole drama of the world goes on due to the emergence of the three gunas (or prakruti) as the coverage or aavarana around the Purusha – making him dance with the mind-field and its vrittis. Now, they have resolved back into their original form into the prakriti, leaving the Purusha free from the covering, or from the barriers created by them. The Chitta vrittis were the barriers. Purusha has scored a total victory over them now. Therefore, the three Gunas resolve back to their original position in the Prakruthi.

Now, let us recall the definition of Yoga in the second sutra of first chapter : Yogah chitta vrutti nirodhah. The yogi has conquered the chitta vrittis completely. He is now liberated from all of them, totally. He has emerged ENLIGHTENED. He is now established in his original nature. This is KAIVALYA.

Here ends the Yoga Sutras.

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