Wednesday, August 31, 2011
PATANJALI = YOGA SUTRAS = CH.2 : Vs.9 ,10,11 =FEAR OF DEATH= DESTROYING ALL SORROWS BY MEDITATION & THAPAS
CHAPTER.2 : SADHANA PAADHA
Vs.9, 10, 11
In previous verses, we saw that Ignorance, ego, likes, dislikes and love of life (and fear of death) are the five Kleshaas (sorrows). We also saw, why Ignorance is declared as the root of all these sorrows. These kleshas may be in totally dormant state, or in attenuated state, or in low or high intensity states in different individuals at different times.
Then we saw that Avidyaa or Ignorance means – taking the impermanent as permanent, the impure as pure, sorrow giving things as happiness giving things and anatma (Non-self) as atma (self). Asmithaa is a direct offshoot of Avidya – and implies that we confuse the Drig (the witnessing self) and the Darsanam (the witnessed world / non-self ) as one and the same.
We then saw that the emotion of raaga is always associated with comfort, happiness etc – and the things which give them. Dvesha is always associated with sorrow, difficulty – and things which give them. We need to be equidistant from these dualities
api thathaa aaroodhah abhiniveshah
Ø sva-rasa-vahee = that which is flowing because of its own properties,its own inclination
Ø vidhushaah = in in the wise person
Ø api = even
Ø thathaa = in the same way
Ø aaroodhah = firmly established
Ø abhiniveshah = love for life or fear of death
In every individual, in fact, in every being, the love of live and fear of death are deeply entrenched. Even in the wise people of great learning – this love of life and fear of death can be seen.
Bu, why so? Life is the basis for all other actions of the Individual or being. If there is no life, we have no identity is the physical world. All relationships, all identities, all desires and all actions are based on our love of life and by implication on our fear of death. We do not want to lose our identity for any reason.
We know that all that are born are bound to face death. We have seen it happen for every one in the world. It is the Nature’s order, the world’s order. No one can escape death. This is true. The wise man can logically prove to every one of us that - what we cannot escape from – there is no point in being in fear of it. Do not be afraid of death, he would say? But, is he not afraid of death. He too is. This is the paradox.
Now look at the five kleshaas in a logical order. Ignorance or avidya is the root cause of all kleshaas or sorrows. It first gives rise to our identity or the asmitha. Asmitha grows in us, all sorts of likes and dislikes or raga and dvesha.
The asmitha in us clings to all these likes and dislikes - as they are our identity in this world, and they are the sum total of all of our relationships with others and with our own self. We do not want to lose all these identities, or our asmitha. This in turn becomes our love of life and fear of death. And, this too is based on our Ignorance.
The theories of rebirth are also based on our love of life and fear of death. We want our identity to continue in some form even after our death.
No amount of education can remove this love of life and fear of death. Only removal of avidya can remove all kleshaas.
Ø the (pronounced as in Thames) = these
Ø prathipasava = resolving back into the cause
Ø heyaah = to be destroyed, or eliminated
Ø sookshmaah = subtle form
When the five Kleshaas are in their manifest, gross form, they have to be reduced to their unmanifest, subtle form through thapas. This what we saw so far.
But, when the five kleshaas have come into their subtle form, that is, they are not manifest but are in their potential form, they can be resolved into their causes. Then, their severity comes down. They also become fit to be destroyed totally now.
Kaarana, Sookshma and Sthoola stages are the 3 stages for each samskaara. From Gross (Sthoola) stage, they must be taken to their Subtle (Sookshma) stage through Thapas. From there, they should be taken to karana (causal) stage. This we can do – by deep analysis and locating their causes.
Ø dhyana = meditation
Ø heyaah = to be
Ø thath = that
Ø vritthayah = mind-modifications
Now the five Kleshaas are in their subtle (Sookshma) form. These subtle kleshaas can now be easily destroyed through meditation (dhyana).
Though Dhyana is mentioned in the last stage of destroying the samskaaraas – it can itself act as thapas and as method of resolving the gross samskaaraas or kleshaas into their causal form.
Patanjali is thus indicating the remedial nature of Dhyana or meditation in destroying our five kleshaas or sorrows.
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Monday, August 29, 2011
PATANJALI = YOGA SUTRAS = CHAPTER.2 : SADHANA PAADHA = Vs.7 & 8 = LIKES & DISLIKES (OR ATTACHMENT & HATRED)
CHAPTER.2 : SADHANA PAADHA
Vs.7 & 8
In previous verses, we saw that Ignorance, ego, likes, dislikes and love of life (and fear of death) are the five Kleshaas (sorrows). We also saw, why Ignorance is declared as the root of all these sorrows. These kleshaas may be in totally dormant state, or in attenuated state, or in low or high intensity states in different individuals at different times.
Then we saw that Avidyaa or Ignorance means – taking the impermanent as permanent, the impure as pure, sorrow giving things as happiness giving things and anatma (Non-self) as atma (self). Asmithaa is a direct offshoot of Avidya – and implies that we confuse the Drig (the witnessing self) and the Darsnam (the witnessed world / non-self ) as one and the same.
We shall now see what raaga(attachment) and dvesha (hatred) connote :
Sukha anusayee raagah
Ø sukha = pleasure
Ø anushayee = closely following
Ø raagah = attachment
Raaga can be defined as attachment, desire, liking etc – for any thing.
Whatever thing, thought, idea, action, person or being – which give us pleasure, comfort or happiness – we develop attachment for such a thing, person etc.
We want to be near it. Along with our experience of pleasure, comfort etc that the thing arouses – our mind develops the feeling or experience of raaga. Pleasure or comfort is a close accompaniment to the feeling or experience of raaga in us.
We all want to go after and be nearer to such things to which we develop such attachment and towards which our minds have an innate raaga.
It is not necessary that all individuals will have raga for the same things. No. Each person may have raaga for a different person or thing. What gives happiness to one person may not give happiness to another. In fact, one may have raga for a thing for which another may have anger or hatred.
All wars, all battles, all enmities are because of this paradox that our likes and dislikes are not the same – but can be poles apart some times.
Raaga can also be in a dormant stage, or weakened stage, low stage or at a high intensity – like any other klesha.
Duhkha anusayee dveshah
Ø duhkha = pain, sorrow, suffering
Ø anushayee = closely following
Ø dveshah = aversion, hatred
Dvesha or Hatred is the Opposite of Raaga or Attachment.
Some things, some persons, some events can give us the experience of sorrow. We hate such things and persons which / who give us sorrow.
From the experience of sorrow – arises hatred for the thing / person that gives such sorrow.
Both likes and dislikes, or raaga and dvesha are two sides of the same coin. Some times, raaga can turn into dvesha and vice versa.
We must keep off from both attachment and hatred. It may or may not be possible to keep off physically from things which give us sorrow. But, we can mentally keep them away. We must be indifferent to them – or remain with non-attachment.
Having said that both attachment and hatred are two sides of the same coin – we must also acknowledge that, most of the time, raaga for one thing automatically tends to generate dvesha towards its opposite.
The world is full of dualities.
If you attach raaga to one – dvesha will get attached to its opposite.
These likes and dislikes are direct off-shoots of asmitha – which itself arises from avidya.
Like raaga, dvesha can also be in dormant, attenuated (weakened), low or high intensity states at different times, towards different things.
We will see the last klesha, the abhinivesha in the next Post.
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Thursday, August 25, 2011
PATANJALI = YOGA SUTRAS = CHAPTER.2 : SADHANA PAADHA Vs.5&6 = WHAT EXACTLY IS IGNORANCE; & I - NESS (ASMITHA) IN US?
CHAPTER.2 : SADHANA PAADHA
In previous verses, we saw that Ignorance, ego, likes, dislikes and love of life (and fear of death) are the five Kleshaas (sorrows) – and we also saw, why Ignorance is declared as the root of all these sorrows. These kleshas may be in totally dormant state, or in attenuated state, or in low or high states in individuals at different times.
Now – it is necessary for us to understand what exactly we mean by Ignorance – in the parlance of Yoga sutras. Patanjali explains them here :
anithya asuchi duhkhan anaatmasu
nitya suchi sukha atma khyaathih avidyaa
Ø anithya = non-permanent
Ø asuchi = impure
Ø duhkhaan = sorrowful
Ø anaatmasu = the non-self
Ø nitya = the eternal
Ø suchi = the pure
Ø sukha = pleasant
Ø atman = Self
Ø khyathih = Assuming to be
Ø avidyaa = ignorance
Ignorance or avidya which is our foremost sorrow-giving factor - is of four different types:
1) Assuming temporary / non-permanent things as permanent and eternal
2) Assuming the impure as pure
3) Assuming that which actually brings misery as one which brings pleasantness / happiness
4) Assuming that which WE ARE NOT as the Real US – or that which is not the self as the Self
This needs further explanation.
Throughout life, most people fondly assume that - their body is permanent. They however try to protect it, furnish it and beauty it, in many ways.
We all remain in too much attachment with the body-mind complex till the last moment of our life. But, the Universal truth is - Whatever is born is bound to die. We do see it happening in the case (of the body-mind complex) of all others.
All of us are born in the mother’s womb; then we come out of the womb into the world; meet other people; eat; grow; procreate; then ensues a period of non-growth; then decay; and then death – with diseases intervening periodically. It happens to all of us.
We are all going through all these phases. We see that all the time. Every moment of our life, we are moving effectively one moment or one step towards death. Yet, we wish to be and even fondly assume to be eternal in body; in mind; in our family bonds; in our social bonds; and so on.
Change is the only thing that is permanent in the physical (and mental) world. We must know that nothing born in the world can ever be permanent. But, we always keep that fond dream of eternal life. This arises out of avidya or Ignorance.
The second Ignorance is - assuming the impure as the pure. Is the body Pure or impure? You may decorate your meal in a thousand ways and make it look beautiful. But, once it crosses the mouth – it is a lump of impurity. Many things in your own body join it. Man cannot bear to eat what he gurgles or vomits out after eating. As it proceeds through digestive process – it is not the same food in LOOKS that you sent in. Had the food remained outside also, in time, it begins to stink. Rotting is its natural quality.
Rotting is also the natural quality of your body. Every thing that comes out of your body stinks. When it is inside – you do not feel it. When it is out – you don’t want to even touch it. With all these inside you – is your body pure or impure?
Now, look at your mind. How many thoughts cross your mind? If all these thoughts are known to all others – can they respect you? How many dreams do you get; and what type of dreams? Is your mind pure or impure? You may spray beautiful perfumes on your body; you may wear beautiful sacred clothes on it to hush up your mind identity. But, you know well, if your mind is pure or impure. The same thing applies to all people’s bodies and minds in the world. We try to purify these bodies and minds, which are inherently impure.
The third Ignorance is - mistaking the things that bring misery to us as things which give us happiness. The foremost among them is money. We assume that if we get more money – we get more happiness. Is that true? Take a look at all those who have that much or more money than what you want. Are the rich people you envy - happier than you? Definitely not.
You are confusing their exterior with your Interior. You are only seeing their exterior and their interior is not visible to you. Their exterior dazzles you and makes you feel, they are in the seventh heaven. The fact is – they are not. Probably – they are in the seventh Hell! In Your interior, you feel miserable only due to this comparison of your interior with their exterior.
It is a meaningless, foolish comparison. If the comparison ceases, you are instantly happy. The world No.1 or No.2 or 10 in terms of wealth – let me assure you – is no happier than you in any way, if you cease to make comparisons with them. You are happier. The term, wealthiest man - inherently means, he is comparing – to grow in wealth, and that makes him race up harder and harder continuously and he has no time to be happy.
Do you have a very beautiful wife or the most handsome husband? If so – be honest – are you happy or nervous? We assume every such possession will give us happiness and pleasure. It may, for some time. Then it ceases to give any happiness. Then, it starts giving pain, sorrow, nervousness and so on. This is what Patanjali is saying here. We are constantly mistaking things that give us unhappiness as things that give us happiness. We are running after mirages.
The last ignorance is of course – the ultimate – but that is what surrounds all of us all the time. We assume what we are not - as what we are. We usually assume the body-mind complex as our self. Do we know that the body-mind complex is completely going out into the world in small, small cells and in about an year or so – your totally body consists of new cells drawn from outside and they metamorphose into your new body cells. The old body or mind in physical form does not just exist any more. What you were three years ago – nothing of that remains in you right now. Which You - are You talking of – as YOU, right Now?
ARE YOU YOUR THOUGHTS? You can’t reproduce one single thought in its original form. If you are 40 years Old – most of your thoughts of 40 years have gone into cold storage – and – what can come out in any form of mind technology (hypnosis etc) – is a very rough aberration of very little of your thoughts. Do you remember what you studied in your fifth class? You don’t.
So – you are not your body, not your mind, not your thoughts, not your dreams, not your degrees, not your organization, not your parents, not your age, and not any thing by which the world recognizes you and by which you recognize yourself. This is your ultimate avidya – your perennial inability to recognize your OWN SELF – and confusing every thing else as your self.
The science of Yoga is actually intended to remove this avidya and enable you to recognize what is permanent and what is not; what is pure and what is not; what is joy-giving and what is not; and what really are You and what You really are not.
We have defined Ignorance. But, we are still far away from knowing what is permanent, what is pure, what is Joy or Joy-giving and what is the real self. Are they all different – or one and the same? Our journey through the path of Yoga – is precisely for knowing this – and coming out of our Ignorance.
saktyoh ekaatmatha iva asmithaa
Ø drig = the witness (that is the real You); the consciousness self which is the real Seer
Ø darsana-saktyoh = the instrument (Or power)of seeing, intellect or anthahkarana (including Buddhi)
Ø ekaatmatha = identifying as self
Ø iva = appearing to be
Ø asmita = I-ness (or ego self)
There is a Permanent Witness (or, Drig) of everything. And then, there is the instrument and Power of seeing (and experiencing) namely the Antahkarana or Intellect (including Buddhi) – which sees and experiences through the five senses etc, judges, decides and identifies. When this instrument is doing so many intellectual deeds – we, the real witness, tend to identify with the instrument of seeing and experiencing , namely with the antahkarana (and Buddhi) – while it is actually only an instrument and not we, the real self. This gives rise to an I feeling, with the Instrument with which we tend to identify.
Why does this happen? Why does the actual seer identify with the instrument of seeing? This happens because – the seer cannot see himself. The physical part only is visible. The instrument of seeing only is available for sensory perception. The mind can see all things outside – but not the seer who remains unseen by it. The five senses are all outward bound – and therefore all inputs from them come from outside. There are no inputs from the real Seer at all.
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