Sunday, September 25, 2011
PATANJALI = YOGA SUTRAS = CH..2 : SADHANA PAADHA Vs.18, 19, 20 = WHO SEES? = WHAT IS SEEN?
CHAPTER.2 : SADHANA PAADHA
Vs.18, 19, 20
We have analyzed the five kleshaas (or five sorrows or difficulties) which are the major obstructions to our success in Yoga and in life.
These are Ignorance or avidya (Ignorance), asmitha (Ego), raaga (likes), dvesha (dislikes) and abhinivesha (love of death/fear of death).
The three stages in extinguishing the five kleshaas are –
(i) through thapas, bring them from their gross form to their subtle form
(ii) Resolve them into their causes and
(iii) extinguish them through Meditation
Our actions follow us in a cycle. Subtle impressions in the mind prompt us into various actions. On performing the actions, they leave further subtle impressions in the mind. These impressions further prompt us into specific actions.
These actions result in our birth, our length of life and the good and bad experiences we feel in life. Pleasure results to us from the past good and benevolent deeds done by us. Likewise, pain and suffering result from the past bad and wicked deeds done by us. Our pleasure and pain thus come from this baggage of punya (benevolent deeds) and apunya (wicked deeds).
But, the wise man sees sorrow only in every thing. Even the experience of sukham is preceded by duhkham in its anxious expectation, then, fear of its losing even when it is with us and sorrow for losing it when it is gone. But, the difficulty which is already gone is not with us any way. It is the one - to be attended by us. The difficulty now with us also is not the worst sorrow. The worst sorrow is about the difficulty that has not yet come. Because – we can prevent this aagami Karma – by our present actions. And, why why do feel so sorrowful frequently. The main cause of our sorrow is the coming into contact of the pure witness (the seer or the self) with the drisyam, the world of experience, through the manas, Buddhi etc. But, what really is Drisyam? The answer comes now.
prakasha kriyaa sthiti sheelam
bhootha indriya atmakam
bhoga apavarga artham
Ø prakasha = illumination, wisdom (representing Sathva guna)
Ø kriya = activity (Rajo guna)
Ø sthiti = steadiness, inertia (thamo guna)
Ø sheelam = possessing the nature of
Ø Bhootha = the five elements, including their Sthoola & Sookshma variations (earth, water, fire, air, space)
Ø indriya = sense organs of perceptions (includes jnana and karma indriyaas)
Ø atmakam = the manas
Ø bhoga = experience (of both sukha and Duhkha)
Ø apavarga = liberation, Mukthi or Moksha
Ø artham = for the purpose of
Ø drisyam = the seen (the experienced Universe)
Drisyam is the world of experience. But, Drisyam (or the universe) is not merely for experiencing it – but it is also for the liberation of the Purusha – who otherwise will immerse totally in its experience.
Drisyam consists of Sathva guna, through which it illuminates our mind, Rajo guna through it which it propels us into activity and Thamo guna through which it makes us still and full of inertia.
Drisyam consists of the five great elements which comprise the whole universe – namely, earth, water, fire, air and space.
These five elements exist in gross form and subtle form both. The Jnanendriyaas and karmendriyas are part of it in subtle form. The manas is also part of it, in still subtler form. The word atma used here does not refer to the pure self who is the Drasta. It refers to the manas (& anthahkaranam) which is a part of the drisyam only. It looks like the seer, or pure witness, until the real witness withdraws from them and starts seeing the Drisyam as pure witness. It is the coming together of this drisyam with the Drasta – that creates the cause of all sorrows (by mere identification of Drashta with the Drisyam).
But the Drisyam – even while being the cause of sorrows – can also be the liberator from the sorrows. The Drashta, if he keeps himself as pure witness, without identification with the Drisyam – is ever liberated – even while he may seem to be experiencing it. The Drashta can go through the world untouched by the Drisyam and its viles. But, any identification with it – drags the Purusha into its experiences and sorrows.
Here – another question which dogs our minds usually – is answered : What is the purpose of the world for us? Two(2) Purposes are mentioned. The world gives us the experience of itself. The world also can act as a liberator of our self from the same experience. It is not that world does it for us. We must do it for our self. Experience of the world is like a training ground. Liberation is the ultimate aim. You cannot get liberated until you know the experience. This is the beauty. Life itself is experience. No one can get liberated – without being born and without experiencing the world. He has to undergo his Karma in the process.
“Yoga says this world exists as a training school, a learning school -- don't avoid it and don’t try to escape from it. Rather live it, and live it so totally that you need not be forced again to live it. That's the meaning when we say that an enlightened person never comes back - there is no need.”- opines Osho.
Ø vishesha = specialized (5 elements,5 karmendriyaas, 5 jnanendriyaas and Manas = total of 16 thathvaas)
Ø avishesha = unspecialized (6 thathvaas : 5 elements in subtle or sooskhma form + aham thathvam)
Ø linga-matra = identification mark; the indicated (linga = mark; matra = only); Indicates Mahat thathvam or universal Intelligence
Ø alingani = that which is without even a mark or trace, undifferentiated subtle matter
Ø guna-parvani = Changing state of the gunas (guna = gunas of prakriti; parvani = level)
There are four states of the Drishyam (1) visesha (specialized or defined or gross) (2) Avisesha (non-specialised or undefined or subtle) (3) mere indictor or identification mark ony and (4) without even an identification mark or indicator
By the term "specialized or defined" we mean the gross elements, which we can sense. We can see, smell, hear, taste or touch and experience them with our senses.
By the term " non-specialised or undefined or subtle" we mean the very fine materials, which are also called the tanmatras, which we can not experience with the five senses.
By the term "the indicated only" , we mean the Buddhi or the intellect. "The indicated only" is the first manifestation of nature; from it all other manifestations proceed.
The last is "without even an indicator or the signless".
According to Yoga philosophy, which largely follows Sankhya system, in explaining the genesis of the universe, Nature is the material cause and also the efficient cause of the Universe. Initially – when the Sathva, rajas and thamo gunas are in perfect balance, it is in an AVYAKTHA state, in which – it is not experience-able; it is beyond any indicator or sign. This Avyakhta Prakrithi is however disturbed and an imbalance created between the three Gunas. The imbalance in the three gunas results in all creation, including the man.
When the perfect balance between the three Gunas is disturbed, creation into fine (or subtle) elements starts first and them the subtle elements combine to form gross elements. The highest form of this combination is called MAHAT, which is the Universal Intelligence. From this MAHAT proceeds further creation by various combinations of Sathva, Rajas and Thamas.
When Sathva guna is dominant – there is wisdom and illumination. When rajo guna prevails, there is activity. When Thamas is dominant, there is inertia and steadiness.
So, all the four states of the creation are modifications of the three Gunas.
drashtaa drishi matrah
suddhah api pratyaya anupashyah
Ø drashta = the seer
Ø drishi-matrah = power of seeing (drishi = seeing; matrah = power)
Ø suddhah = pure; no changes
Ø api = even though,
Ø pratyaya = the feeling, content of mind
Ø anupashyah = appearing to see
There is the Purusha principle – which is beyond all modifications and changes. It is Suddha – or pure. There is the Prakrithi principle which is subject to continuous modifications – and therefore not Pure.
The former never changes but the latter never ceases to change. Change is its very nature.
The interaction between Purusha and Prakrithi comes about at the interaction point – called Buddhi, which reflects the Purusha – as the power of experience. And this reflection is seen in buddhi or the intelligence when it comes to the manas level, which reacts in many ways to the various components of Prakrithi.
Buddhi, though not permanent like Purusha, also exists for eons or kalpa (huge number of years) – even while the bodies go on perishing and reforming.
The Drasta or the Seer is therefore really the Power behind the act seeing itself – but it appears to see or experience because, it is seen as the reflection in the buddhi. In Buddhi, the main characteristic is its continuous evolvement or modification, which gives it the knowledge of the Prakrithi.
Now 2 things happen in the Buddhi. The reflection of the Purusha happens in Buddhi and gives it all its powers of experience (seeing etc). The external Prakrithi is seen by it through the jnanendriyaas, manas etc. But, because the seeing happens du to the power of reflection of the Purusha in it – the mistaken impression arises that the experiencer and the one undergoing modifications is the Purusha.
Mind too has 3 states of Sathva, Rajas and Thamas – (i) to remain peaceful and contented - in Sathva; (2) to be discontented and forever in action and craving – in Rajas. Or (3) to be inert and still – unwilling to think, understand and act – in thamo guna.
We are bound and not free so far as intelligence is concerned – as it is a part of Prakrithi itself. Some day – its relationship is with Prakrithi and has to go back to it.
But, we are free as far as the soul is concerned. The soul or Purusha is not part of Prakrithi and is beyond all modifications and all laws of causation.
PS : There are some differences between Sankhya and vedanta versions - in the above discussions - but , as readers can see, when the practice of Yoga is undertaken, these differences become immaterial.
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