Wednesday, September 28, 2011



Vs.21, 22, 23 

What really is Drisyam? Drisham is the Universe, which we experience – and is made out of the three Gunas of Sathva, Rajas and Thamas.

These Gunas make it either stable and illuminated (by Sathva), or active (by Rajas) or inert (by Thamas) – because of the imbalance in the three Gunas and dominance of one or the other of the 3 Gunas.

The universe exists for 2 purposes – (i) for experience and (ii) for liberation  - of the Purusha (the Self).

Universe is like a training school - where the Karma has to be extinguished by experience of the universe. Then, the Purusha can liberate himself from the experience of the universe and know his true self.

The universe exists first in its Avyaktha state. Then, it comes to the stage of the Mahat or universal intelligence state. From then, it proceeds to the individual intelligence, then, the subtle elements and then, finally to the gross forms. Thus, the formation of universe from Avyaktha state to identified state, to fine or subtle state to gross states proceeds in a defined manner. This Universe in all its states - forms the Drisyam for the Drasta, or Purusha.

The Drasta is by himself pure and unchanging. But, the contact with Prakrithi through the Buddhi and the experience of the Prakrithi (Drisyam) – creates the impression that  all changes are occurring in the Purusha.

Patanjali is telling us in so many verses, the qualities of the Drisyam (Universe) and the Drasta (the self). The following verses also expand on the same theme. An absolute clarity is needed between the two – so that, subsequent yoga vidya proceeds with clarity and in a confusion-less manner. 


thad-artha eva drishyasya atma

Ø  Thath : for that
Ø  artha = purpose
Ø  eva = only
Ø  drishyasya = of the seen (Drisyam)
Ø  atma = essence

Drisyam or Universe is basically inert. It is not created for the sake of itself. No inert matter is created for the sake of itself or for the use of another inert matter. An inert matter is useful only to a chatinya swaroopam or conscious being.

In other words, Drisyam is made for the use of the Drasta for his experience and for his liberation.


kritha-artham prathi nashtam api
anashtam thath anya

Ø  kritha-artham = Drasta - after his purpose is accomplished
Ø  prathi = towards
Ø  nashtam = destroyed
Ø  api = although
Ø  anashtam = does not cease
Ø  thath = that
Ø  anya = for others
Ø  saadhaaranathvaath = because it is common to all

We say that the world is for the Purusha. In other words, the Drisyam is created for the use of the Drasta. But, if a Drasta or Purusha attains liberation after experiencing the Samsaara through the Universe, what happens to the Drisyam or the Universe. It is no more needed for this Purusha. Then, will it exist further or not?

In Yoga Sasthra, Drasta is not one but many. There are many conscious beings or many purushas – which is the way sankhya and yoga look at it. This is the truth in the unliberated state. What happens after liberation – is a different aspect.

In Vedanta philosophy – the self is only one – but expresses himself as  “reflections in the Buddhi”, which are called Chidhabhasas.  On liberation, the Purusha no more identifies with the Chidhabhasa.

Chidhabhasa is nothing other than the reflection of Purusha in the Buddhi, by which, the Buddhi attains the quality of Chaitanyam or consciousness. Purusha imparts to the Buddhi and through Buddhi to the manas etc – his quality of Chaitanyam. Other wise, the Sthoola Sareera, Sookshma Sareera and even the Karana Sareera – are part of Prakrithi and are inert matter.

Therefore - in Yoga Sastra – we assume that there are many purushas with the quality of Chaitanyam or consciousness. If one of the purushas is liberated after his experience with Drisyam, he only is liberated from the Drisyam. He has achieved all that he has to achieve. His purpose with Drisyam is over. He is now called Krithartha, one who has achieved his purpose. For him, world is no more needed.

But, there are so many purushas who are not yet liberated. For them, the Drisyam is still required. Therefore, the Universe or Drisyam continues to remain - for their experience and liberation.


 sva svaami saktyoh
svaroopa upalabdhi
hethuh samyogah

Ø sva = of being owned
o   svaami = one who possesses
o   saktyoh = of the powers
o   svaroopa = of own form
o   upalabdhi = recognition
o   hethuh = cause
o   samyogah = union (of Drasta with Drisyam)

What is Samyoga? It is the union or the apparent union of Drasta with Drisyam. Drasta is the experiencer and is in fact separate from the Drisyam, which is inert, and is the one experienced by the Drasta.

But, in the process of experiencing the Drisyam, the Drasta identifies with  Drisyam. Unless, there is a Drisyam, there is no Drasta. What else can he experience other than the Drisyam. Likewise, there is no Drisyam – unless there is a Drasta.

The identification of the Drasta with Drisyam results in Samsaara – or the experience of sorrows and pleasures by the Drasta.

But then, this experience only further leads the Drasta to liberation from Samsaara and the knowledge of his own real self. Knowing his real form or real self is the liberation. This comes when the Drasta disengages from his identification with the Drisyam.

This is why – Patanjali has said that the universe, as Drisyam, is created for the sole purpose of the Drasta – first, for his experience, and then, through that experience, for his liberation from the same.

Patanjali is aiming in so many verses – to ensure that we first know at least theoretically that You and I are Drastas and not Drisyam – and that currently we are experiencing and identifying with the Drisyam. Patanjali is also making the aim of these Yoga sutras very clear. It is for our liberation from our identification with the Drisyam.

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