Friday, September 2, 2011
PATANJALI= YOGA SUTRAS = CH.2 : SADHANA PAADHA Vs.12, 13, 14 = PLEASURE & PAIN = KARMA PHALAM
CHAPTER.2 : SADHANA PAADHA
Vs.12, 13, 14
We have so far analyzed the five kleshaas (or five sorrows or difficulties) which are the major obstructions to our success in Yoga and in life.
These are Ignorance or avidya (Ignorance), asmitha (Ego), raaga (likes), dvesha (dislikes) and abhinivesha (love of death/fear of death). Ignorance is the first and the root of all the other four sorrows. These kleshas may be in totally dormant state, or in attenuated state, or in low or high intensity states in different individuals at different times.
When these are in their gross, highly manifest forms, they should be brought to their subtle / Sookshma form through thapas.
Once they are in their subtle (Sookshma) state, they can be resolved into their causes. Once they are resolved into their causes, it is easy to extinguish them completely through meditation.
Thus the three stages in extinguishing the five kleshaas are –
(i) through thapas, bring them from their gross form to their subtle form
(ii) Resolve them into their causes and
(iii) extinguish them through Meditation
klesha-moola karma-aashayoh drishta adrishta janma vedaneeyah
Ø klesha-moola = having sorrows as its origin
Ø karma-aashaya = birth Place of karma
Ø drishta = visible, present
Ø adrishta = unseen
Ø janma = in births
Ø vedaniyah = to be experienced
All of our fine samskaaraas or latent, subtle impressions recorded in our mind - are the birth place of our Karmas or actions. These fine samskaaraas themselves were the result of similar karmas earlier. The Karma may be visibly completed and over. But, it leaves a subtle impression inside the mind in us. Thus, there is a huge reservoir of such impressions of all of our Karmas inside us.
Next time, an incident happens, the connected or similar latent samskaara or impression in us comes up again and brings out an action or emotion from us, according to the nature of this latent samskaara already recorded in us. Since these impressions are very subtle and latent, they may be remain as visible in the present or invisible in the present – but will be experienced in this birth and the unseen births to come in future.
Samskaaraas are like our habits. Habits govern our actions in most circumstances. Anger can be a habit. Jealousy can be a habit. Every type of reaction is a habit. Our actions emanate out of our habits. Many habits are known to us. Many are unknown to us. They are deeply entrenched inside the mind. All thse are the effects of our Past Karmas. But, the irony is – they also tend to govern our future karmas, and our future actions / reactions to outside stimuli or even they themselves can act as inside stimuli. Samskaaraas are such deeply ingrained habits of the mind. It is not that a samskaara must form from a series of actions. Even a single action of a kind leaves an impression inside the mind.
The Yoga Sasthra considers all impressions as sorrow-giving only in their ultimate nature – as they drive you from behind. There are no good or bad habits, from this view point. All are sorrow giving – or Kleshaas. Karmas – to latent impressions – to similar karmas – to similar reactions – to further latent impressions becomes a cycle – resulting in the birth-death-birth cycle.
Yoga enables us to bypass all these impressions – and become the master. As some Yogis have demonstrated in the past - they can generate any type of body and mind impressions according to their will.
The utility of Yoga is to break this cycle of karma-impressions-karma cycle or birth-death-birth cycle and become free of them.
sati moole thath vipaako jaati aayus bhogaah
Ø sati = being present
Ø moole = to be at the root
Ø thath = of that
Ø vipakah = ripening,
Ø jaati = type of birth in a species
Ø aayus = span of life
Ø bhogaah = what we experience
As earlier said – the birth-karma-death-rebirth cycle is produced because of these kleshaas and their fine impressions in us.
As long as these fine impressions remain as roots in us, they produce the three consequences in us, namely:
1. birth(including its type in a species)
2. span of life, and
3. All good and bad experiences in the life.
This is of course the essence of Karma Yoga. It may look, as if, our whole life is governed by our past karma and their latent impressions in us.
We certainly cannot escape our Karma Phalam or fruits of Karma. This is true. But, how we take that karmaphalam – depends on us. There is an independence given to us in this cycle. Lord Krishna had stated it in his Bhagavad Gita.
You can break the Karma cycle. While the external environment is what Karma phalam actually is – your internal environment, namely, your response, can still come from an independent source, and not necessarily your latest samskaaraas. The past samskaaraas will be there, egging you on – in a certain direction.
A drunkard is tempted heavily to walk to the drinks shop by his past samskaaraas. But, he does have a freedom to walk away from it. His past samskaaraas are temptations – but, one still has an element of freedom, which he needs to exercise.
It is the oldest question in Yoga. Are you controlled by the mind – which is the bundle of your past samskaaraas; or, do you try to break free from it, and control it yourself? The science of Yoga is the latter process. At one time, we become capable or erasing all past samskaaraas.
punya apunya hethutvaath
Ø the = those who continue in this birth-rebirth cycle
Ø hlaada-parithaapa-phalaah = pleasure and pain as fruits
Ø punya = virtuous and benevolent actions
Ø apunya = non-virtuous and evil actions
Ø hethuthvaath = because of the cause (punya or apunya)
Pleasure results to us from the past good deeds and benevolent deeds done by us.
Likewise, pain and suffering result from the bad and wicked deeds dones by us in the past.
As we say in English – as we sow, so we reap. This is Nature’s Law. This also is the Law of Karma. You must reap what you sow and how you sow it. You cannot get away from it.
It will come along with you even into your future births.
This is the answer to the question – why me? Which we some times ask. Why is this happening to me. I am good. But, all evil fruits are coming to me. All sufferings are falling on my head. Why so – even though I am now good.
It may look like fatalism – but, what you sow you have to reap. You cannot get away from the fruits of your Karma of this birth or of a past birth. There is a huge bag of Karmaphalam we are carrying and that needs exhaustion, before your present good karma starts giving its fruit.
If you are enjoying now because of past good karma, but are committing apunya (bad, evil karma) now – you may feel, I can get away with everything that I do. No again. Your old bag of good Karma needs exhaustion – then, the effects of present bad karma starts.
Our pleasure and pain thus come from this baggage of punya and apunya.
So – where is our freedom in the present. In two things, do you have your freedom :
1. Your present Karma can still be free from past impressions. You can control your mind from past, fine impressions – which means, you need not be committing evil acts in the present.
2. Karma Phalam comes to you as pleasure and Pain. But, how do you receive it? As ordinary man, You can enjoy the pleasure and suffer the pain. This means – you are under the control of your fine samskaaraas, or the mind. Or, you have the choice of receiving both of them with equal indifference. They, then cannot make you suffer. For instance, a sage may be jailed or beaten for an act he has not committed. Physical suffering may be there. But, his internal peace and his Aananda (Joy) is in no way disturbed. Big diseases did not have any inner effect on Great Sages like Ramana Maharshi, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa – though, physical suffering was there. Ramana and Gandhi went through major operations without any anesthesia. The detachment from body and its pleasures and sufferings is so easy for the Yogi.
In these verses, Patanjali also is dealing with Karma and its effects – from a Yoga Sasthra view.
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