Thursday, March 7, 2013

Patanjali Yoga Sutras - Ch.4.1, 4.2,4.3 - Kaivalya Paadha - 5 ways Siddhis come - Transformation - Remove obstacles -



After studying the first three chapters in depth, we are now entering the final chapter called Kaivalya Paadha. It is a comparatively small chapter and throws light on the Kaivalya state of the attained Yogi. 


janma - ousadhi - mantra –

tapah -samadhi - jah siddhayah

Ø  janma = birth
Ø  ausadhi = herbs
Ø  mantra = sound vibrations
Ø  tapah = austerities, penance
Ø  samadhi = deep concentration (Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi)
Ø  jah = born
Ø  siddhayah = Achievements, psychic abilities

How do various SIDDHIS or attainments come to the Sadhaka? SIDDHI means ATTAINMENT of some special skill or power. Chapter.3 detailed many such Siddhis which come through the process of Samyama. From the view point of an ordinary human being, these are extraordinary and super human attainments. But, for a Sadhaka, who is adept in Samyama, all these powers are very normal. In fact, their frequent use gets him away from the best of all Siddhis, namely, Kaivalya. Apart from Samyama, are there any other methods by which a sadhaka gets various Siddhis? Yes there are.

The first is BY BIRTH! It is not easily understood how someone gets certain siddhis by birth and others do not. Here comes in, the theory of Karma. Lord Krishna has told Arjuna in the GITA that whatever attainments one comes to, in one birth, all these attainments come along with him into his next birth. They do not go waste. All of us are thus born with the gift of what we attained in our previous birth. It is just that it is not easily visible to all. It is purposefully covered by a veil of secrecy. Someone may seem to have learnt something too very fast in this birth and is called precocious. But, this precociousness has come to him from his previous birth, based on his earlier karma and earlier attainments. He may either start Yogic discipline from a higher level or may learn the lower levels much faster, or, may exhibit some specialty in respect of Yogic Siddhis.

The second Method is AUSHADHI or medicinal herbs. There are many special herbs which have rare siddhis deposited in them. As we know, there are special herbs to stimulate sexual prowess, unusual physical strength, undefined pleasure peaks and so on. These are known to us to some extent. But, there are also herbs which can,  not only cure many diseases but also give life to an ALMOST DEAD person. Some herbs are mentioned in ancient classics which enable one to become very light and fly. One medicine called Sanjeevani was used on Lakshmana in Ramayana. We have no great scientific knowledge of ancient herbs in this Kaliyug. But, some yogis do know many such herbs even now.

The third method is Mantra. Mantra is a sound (Like AUM) which focuses the mind on one particular goal.

We know that one particular word from a person may please us and another ward may hurt us deeply. We wait for such pleasing words and hate to receive the hurting words. A war can happen on the basis of a single spoken or written word. Most of the wars and enmities today are actually due to this word power on human mind. Suppose - the spoken and written words are not there, 90 percent of human quarrels would disappear overnight. But, so will 90 percent of human bonds and human societies.

If we know what word to speak / communicate, and when and where,  we have the power to create even a war between two countries. Every war really, really happens this way only – even if it happens unconsciously. There are many hidden uses of mantra, which are not available to us today. But, Human mind in Kaliyug is stated to lack the power to focus the Mantra itself first.  Very few people still can use Mantra as a siddhi.

The fourth method is tapah or austerities. While Mantra is focusing the sound power, tapah is focusing the mind waves or thought waves. This is also a powerful method which accomplishes many supernatural deeds which ordinary persons can never even think of. Russia was experimenting with a simple power called psycho-kinetics. But, much more powerful miracles can happen with tapas. In ancient days, every Rishi used to perform tapas for long years and their word was obeyed by all powers of nature.

The fifth method is Samadhi. We may actually call it Samyama. What samyama can accomplish, we have seen in the third chapter.

 Actually, all these siddhis go on manifesting in every Sadhaka in Yoga, all the time. At every step, the Sadhaka will attain have some siddhi or other. The very control of Chitta, say, to the extent of 20%, is a great achievement. The Sadhaka knows his achievement. Others may not understand it. Others may only see that the sadhaka no more craves for power, money, sex and so on and leads almost a FOOLISH LIFE. But, the Sadhaka knows how great a Siddhi he has attained.

Vs. 4.2

jaatyantara parinaamah prakriti apooraat

Ø  jaatyantara = into another type of life
Ø  parinaamah =  transformation
Ø  prakriti = nature, the causal factor of all bodies
Ø  apooraat = by filling in process

A sadhaka can take an altogether different form or shape, merely by filling in all the natural factors of that form or shape into him. He can become an ant, a crow, a cobra or a lion, by merely superimposing their qualities and tendencies into him.

We must understand that in basic structure, there is no difference between one being and another. We all consist of the Pancha bhoothas and a particular type of reflected-consciousness, which differentiates one as man and another as a Rat. This, we call as the qualities and tendencies. These are readily available to Sadhaka everywhere. He can transform himself into a Rat or Lion easily, when he is adept in Samyama. One can see the description of Ashta Siddhis in third chapter on this.

Vs. 4.3

nimittam aprayojakam prakriteenaam

varana bhedastu tatah ksetrikavat

Ø  nimittam = incidental/ instrumental cause
Ø  aprayojakam = which does not bring to action
Ø  prakriteenaam = nature, material cause
Ø  varana = obstacles
Ø  bhedas = breaking through
Ø  tu = but
Ø  tatah = that
Ø  ksetrikavat = like a farmer

Patanjali is explaining the process of all these miracles with a simple example.

When a farmer applies his plough to the land, he is merely making the land free of all obstacles for the GOOD SEEDS to sprout without any obstacles like the bad seeds and weeds already in the land, pests and so on.  The GOOD SEED has all the information within itself to become the tree that it is destined to be. The land also has all the qualities within it which can be taken in by the seed to become that particular type of tree whose total intelligence is already embedded into it.

A bad seed can take the same land qualities and strengths but still grow into a bad tree or a weed only. It cannot become a mango tree, orange tree or an apple tree.

So is the case with the Sadhaka. All strengths are already available within himself in seed form. But, along with them are certain obstacles within him and outside him. This Patanjali called in the first chapter itself as “CHITTA VRITTIH”.

These chitta vrittis create various obstacles to our sprouting into great Yogis. We only need to remove these obstacles one by one, process by process. The entire prakriti will help us to grow – only if we remove all the obstacles within us and a few outside us. Here, prakriti can be interpreted as our chitta vritti also.

What brings the final effect in the Sadhaka? Two types of causes are generally identified for any result to occur.  One is the material cause. Another is the incidental cause. Material cause is someone or something that provides the material for making the thing.  Incidental cause is one who works on it to produce something. A Gold smith is the incidental cause who works on the Gold, the material cause, to produce a Gold ring.

When the Sadhaka is working on Yoga, he is of course the incidental cause. But, if the material cause is the prakriti around him, he attains many siddhis or mastery on prakriti. If the material cause also is he himself, or his Chitta Vrittis, he attains the best of all siddhis ,that is, kaivalya.  In either case, his Sadhanas only remove obstacles, and do not create anything new by his efforts. The Siddhis are already available within.

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