Monday, April 8, 2013

PATANJALI YOGA SUTRAS - CH.4.25 TO 4.28 - The last few impressions and barriers



KAIVALYA PAADHA essentially deals with how the state of Samadhi transforms us.  It is a pointer to its essential characteristics. The following sutras tell us how the viveki, the yogi who has attained significant discriminating power tackles his further progress.


visesha darshina atma

bhaava bhaavana nivrittih

Ø  visesha = distinction
Ø  darshinah = of one who sees
Ø  atma = Self
Ø  bhaava = meaning; nature;
Ø  bhaavana = feeling
Ø  nivrittih = complete cessation

Patanjali is now explaining the nature of that yogi who has realized the distinction between the seer, the seen and the mind very clearly. In other words, he is now the viveki, the one proficient in discriminating faculty; the one who can perceive the truth and differentiate it from the one which is not – easily.

At this stage, the mind also is the purest possible reflector of external reality, without any coloring either on itself  or on the scenery.  The seer, the Purusha, the pure consciousness knows this. He has experienced the external reality in its purest form, since no coloring affects it now. There are now no false identities. 

There is not even any further curiosity about the nature of one's own self. There is complete cessation of all doubt between the seer, the seen and the nature of mind. There is a complete cessation of any desire, including the desire to reside in the Purusha. The pure mind has come close to the Purusha and is accepting his Mastery.

Vs. 4.26

tadaa viveka nimnam

kaivalya praagbhaavam chittam

Ø  tadaa = then
Ø  viveka = discrimination
Ø  nimnam = incline towards
Ø  kaivalya = liberation
Ø  praagbhaavam = gravitate towards
Ø  chittam =  mind-field

Viveka means clear discrimination between Truth and what is not truth. Truth liberates from ignorance, while what is not truth binds the sadhaka to Ignorance. The mind-field is always looking outward through the senses and its perception is always coloured. But, once the coloring is removed, the mind-field, the Chitta also becomes a clear, pure receiver of external wisdom because of the illuminating power that it has received from the Purusha. 

Now, mind is inclined towards clear viveka or discrimination faculty in its power of perception and therefore, the ignorance binding it, comes down and down and tends to remove the veil of ignorance from the Purusha. Purusha is now shining clearly. Mind also therefore gravitates towards total liberation.

Mind now begets and exercises the power of discrimination and gravitates towards liberation. What is the liberation? It is nothing but the dropping of all barriers to wisdom, the barriers to truth that had arisen in mind due to the covering of Ignorance. What is the ignorance of the mind-field? It is its identification with the body-mind complex. Once the self realizes that it is not the body-mind complex, the barriers covering the mind-field drop away easily.

The mind-field should detach from the drisya and become and efficient aid of the real Master, the Prabhu, the Purusha, the self, the consciousness.

Now, all barriers drop off. Discrimination, viveka comes home automatically. Renunciation, vairagya and liberation happen effortlessly, effectively and automatically.

Vs. 4.27

tachchhidresu pratyaya 

antaraani samskaarebhyah

Ø  tachchhidresu = in the gaps
Ø  pratyaya = causal or cognitive principle
Ø  antaraani = other
Ø  samskaarebhyah = deep impressions in the unconscious

Will the Viveka, the discriminating Power be always at the peak and never faltering at all? 

Patanjali says, even at this point, there will be some very deep impressions, very deeply ingrained Samskaras, which rise again and again to pull down the viveka and put barriers in its path. This happens many times. This is because, some of these deepest, ingrained samskaras  take time and effort to be totally rooted out.

This means, the yogi must never lose hope and never lose heart, at any periodical failure in keeping the viveka or absolute discrimination. In other words, the same methods already gone through for removal of samskaras must be continued to be adopted  till the last remnants are rooted out. For this, retaining a high level of awareness of them is however essential.

The English proverb, HABITS DIE HARD is very true. But, they do die, with practice and non-attachment.

Vs. 4.28

haanam eshaam

klesavat uktam

Ø  haanam = removal of (remaining impressions)
Ø  eshaam = their
Ø  kleshavat = like the previous colorings
Ø  uktam = earlier stated methods

Patanjali has taught us all the methods for removal and rooting out of kleshas like ignorance and suffering throughout the Yoga Sutras earlier. The removal of the remaining kleshas also needs to be done by the same methods.

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