Wednesday, August 31, 2011
PATANJALI = YOGA SUTRAS = CH.2 : Vs.9 ,10,11 =FEAR OF DEATH= DESTROYING ALL SORROWS BY MEDITATION & THAPAS
CHAPTER.2 : SADHANA PAADHA
Vs.9, 10, 11
In previous verses, we saw that Ignorance, ego, likes, dislikes and love of life (and fear of death) are the five Kleshaas (sorrows). We also saw, why Ignorance is declared as the root of all these sorrows. These kleshas may be in totally dormant state, or in attenuated state, or in low or high intensity states in different individuals at different times.
Then we saw that Avidyaa or Ignorance means – taking the impermanent as permanent, the impure as pure, sorrow giving things as happiness giving things and anatma (Non-self) as atma (self). Asmithaa is a direct offshoot of Avidya – and implies that we confuse the Drig (the witnessing self) and the Darsanam (the witnessed world / non-self ) as one and the same.
We then saw that the emotion of raaga is always associated with comfort, happiness etc – and the things which give them. Dvesha is always associated with sorrow, difficulty – and things which give them. We need to be equidistant from these dualities
api thathaa aaroodhah abhiniveshah
Ø sva-rasa-vahee = that which is flowing because of its own properties,its own inclination
Ø vidhushaah = in in the wise person
Ø api = even
Ø thathaa = in the same way
Ø aaroodhah = firmly established
Ø abhiniveshah = love for life or fear of death
In every individual, in fact, in every being, the love of live and fear of death are deeply entrenched. Even in the wise people of great learning – this love of life and fear of death can be seen.
Bu, why so? Life is the basis for all other actions of the Individual or being. If there is no life, we have no identity is the physical world. All relationships, all identities, all desires and all actions are based on our love of life and by implication on our fear of death. We do not want to lose our identity for any reason.
We know that all that are born are bound to face death. We have seen it happen for every one in the world. It is the Nature’s order, the world’s order. No one can escape death. This is true. The wise man can logically prove to every one of us that - what we cannot escape from – there is no point in being in fear of it. Do not be afraid of death, he would say? But, is he not afraid of death. He too is. This is the paradox.
Now look at the five kleshaas in a logical order. Ignorance or avidya is the root cause of all kleshaas or sorrows. It first gives rise to our identity or the asmitha. Asmitha grows in us, all sorts of likes and dislikes or raga and dvesha.
The asmitha in us clings to all these likes and dislikes - as they are our identity in this world, and they are the sum total of all of our relationships with others and with our own self. We do not want to lose all these identities, or our asmitha. This in turn becomes our love of life and fear of death. And, this too is based on our Ignorance.
The theories of rebirth are also based on our love of life and fear of death. We want our identity to continue in some form even after our death.
No amount of education can remove this love of life and fear of death. Only removal of avidya can remove all kleshaas.
Ø the (pronounced as in Thames) = these
Ø prathipasava = resolving back into the cause
Ø heyaah = to be destroyed, or eliminated
Ø sookshmaah = subtle form
When the five Kleshaas are in their manifest, gross form, they have to be reduced to their unmanifest, subtle form through thapas. This what we saw so far.
But, when the five kleshaas have come into their subtle form, that is, they are not manifest but are in their potential form, they can be resolved into their causes. Then, their severity comes down. They also become fit to be destroyed totally now.
Kaarana, Sookshma and Sthoola stages are the 3 stages for each samskaara. From Gross (Sthoola) stage, they must be taken to their Subtle (Sookshma) stage through Thapas. From there, they should be taken to karana (causal) stage. This we can do – by deep analysis and locating their causes.
Ø dhyana = meditation
Ø heyaah = to be
Ø thath = that
Ø vritthayah = mind-modifications
Now the five Kleshaas are in their subtle (Sookshma) form. These subtle kleshaas can now be easily destroyed through meditation (dhyana).
Though Dhyana is mentioned in the last stage of destroying the samskaaraas – it can itself act as thapas and as method of resolving the gross samskaaraas or kleshaas into their causal form.
Patanjali is thus indicating the remedial nature of Dhyana or meditation in destroying our five kleshaas or sorrows.
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