Wednesday, February 20, 2013

PATANJALI - YOGASUTRAS - CH-3 vs55, 56 - Holistic Knowledge - Kaivalyam -



Samyama is the process of seeing your multi faceted self, from different angles – and ultimately realizing all of them. In Samyama, we start with Dharana on a particular Goal – and therefore, all wisdom pertaining to that Goal and it extensions -  comes to the Sadhaka in Samyama. We have seen that process in earlier sutras upto 3.54 – and we are continuing with the same further here.


taarakam sarva visayam sarvathaa visayam

akramam cha iti viveka jam jnanam

Ø  taarakam = transcending
Ø  sarva = all
Ø  visayam = objects, including all aspects of them
Ø  sarvathaa = by all means
Ø  visayam = objects
Ø  akramam = beyond any sequence
Ø  cha = and
Ø  iti = this
Ø  viveka = discrimination, discernment
Ø  ja = born
Ø  jnanam = wisdom or knowledge

In the last sutra, Patanjali had talked of how Sadhaka’s perception is enhanced by his samyama on the factor of time and the succession of moments of time. The Sadhaka is now able to perceive any object without the limitations of category, characteristics and place.

This knowledge is much higher and deeper than all other knowledge of the objects. It transcends all limitations and Sadhaka can now see all objects at all times in all variations.

Past, Present and Future are no limitations for the Sadhaka now. We, ordinary people, can only see the present – what is, this moment; and that too, what is before our eyes.

Sadhaka can see what was, ten years ago, what is, at present and what will be, ten years into future, simultaneously. The Succession of moments of time is immaterial for the Sadhaka now.

The entire static and dynamic states of all objects at all points of time are now within his knowing. Samyama on succession of moments of time brings all this wisdom into his knowing.

Vs. 56

sattva purusayoh suddhi

saamye kaivalyam iti

Ø  sattva = purity aspect of mind
Ø  purusayoh = pure consciousness
Ø  suddhi = purity
Ø  saamye = equality
Ø  kaivalyam = absolute liberation
Ø  iti = this

This is the last sutra in Vibhuti Paada. Patanjali defines here, the ultimate goal of Yoga, the Kaivalya.

What is Kaivalya?

For understanding this, we must keep in mind both the seeker and the sought (or the goal).

The seeker here is the sadhaka, the Yogi. He has come through so many stages; so many steps; from yama, niyama, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and Samadhi – to a goal which Patanjali calls now as KAIVALYA. This is the ultimate goal for the Sadhaka; Kaivalya is the sadhyam, the goal that he has been seeking. His sadhana was for Kaivalya, not for physical strength; not for mental strength; not for enormous super human powers; and not also for the association with Godly angels.

He has passed all those earlier stages; now he is at a stage where his self is like the purest mirror that can ever be.

There are no angers, jealousies or any other negative qualities in him. There are no attachments in him towards any one on earth or anywhere in the Universe, including the Angels.

He sees the past, present and future of any and every object or being and therefore, knows their  static and dynamic states at all points of time. His detachment extends to his own body and mind too. The external impurities constituting the objects of Universe are freed from him. The internal impurities constituting the body-mind complex also is freed from him.

He is now the purest self. Sathva represents the pure self. In case of the Sadhaka, who has even spurned the offers and invitations of Gods and angels, and has refused to fall for the charms of super human powers, there are no more any desires  which can create any impurities in him.

At this stage there is a perfect parity or equality between his purest self and the purest Purusha or the all-pervading consciousness.

Is it a stage which other mortals can define or elaborate to give us a perfect idea of it? No. It is almost impossible to accurately define Kaivalya state. But, the readiness for it in the Sadhaka alone can be hinted.

The Most persistent Yogi who attains to the stage of his purest self – is ready for Kaivalya. The all pervading, supreme consciousness also now sees him as the equal.

Does this all pervading consciousness called Purusha now become one with the Suddha Satva Self or just reflect and shine through him or whatever else happens?

The Vedanta or Upanishadic Philosophy defines the purest self in three words : truth, consciousness and Bliss. The self is all these simultaneously and not one after another. This is it's real, original state of the Self, when the impurities do not touch the self.

The Yoga Philosophy tells the Sadhaka – become this purest sathva, the purest truth; Now,  the consciousness and bliss also become your qualities.

Sadhaka is not just truthful – he is the truth now. He knows the past, present and future so accurately, that, nothing misses him. Nothing is a wonder for him. Nothing is super human now. Nothing is beyond or below him.

If we are to express Kaivalyam in the words of the Upanishads, we may say – “that thvam asi” – That thou art. There is no becoming in that. There is only realization.

You are (always) that (which you are seeking)

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