Tuesday, February 8, 2011



(POST.6 : Verses 31 to 35)

So far, we have studied up to Verse.30.

Moderation in all aspects of life is prescribed as the key for sense control and progress in Dhyana Yoga.

Mind is, by nature, wavering, and moves from one thought to another and is unable to concentrate on one thought even for a small, reasonable time.

The way to bring it under your conscious control is by being a witness to your own mind and its thought processes, but without participating in the same and getting carried away by them.

You will notice that even while one part of you is thinking, another part of you is watching the thinking process. The watcher you is the Buddhi or intellect and the watched you is the mind (manas/chittam).

The Sadhaka must do this Sadhana steadfastly without expecting quick results and without being impatient for them.

Mind will become calm and unwavering, and will gradually come under the control of the enlightened intellect or Buddhi.

When Mind is under Buddhi’s control and Buddhi is established in the self, the Sadhaka stays in Brahman or the real self,  and becomes free of all impurities (and sins).

In this state, the Sadhaka (yogi) enjoys supreme and infinite bliss.
Now, the yogi, the one who is fixed in the self (Brahman), sees  his own self in all beings and every where and also sees all beings in the self. There is no one who is superior or inferior in his view. All are equal and Brahman is present in all.

Lord Krishna, before whom Arjuna has surrendered himself, says - He who sees ‘Me’ in all beings and sees all beings in me, never loses sight of me and I never lose sight of him.

He explains the concept further in next verse.


Sarva bhootha sthitham yo maam bhajathyekathvamaasthitah

sarvathaa varthamaanopi sa yogee mayi varthathe .

The yogi who sees me in every being and surrenders to this oneness of me in the universe - he will always be with me irrespective of what he does.

This is a natural corollary of the earlier verses. When you see the lord every where and in every one, including in your own self, you are always in him and he is always in you.

Can you do harm to a person in whom you see the lord, the one whom you love most? Certainly you will not. You will love him just as you love the lord himself.

Whatever he does will be out of love and compassion. There is no place in him for negative emotions at all.

In India, there is a great, ancient tradition in naming children after their birth. Favourite names of gods are selected. The implicit meaning is – treat your children (and your neighbours’ / others’ children) as you treat your god.

There is a huge misconception in the minds of many in east and west that Indian culture has many gods! From a huge distance, just as Sun appears smaller than us to our eyes, so also, Indian culture will seem to have too many gods. Both are not correct perceptions.

The reality is – India wants to see the same god everywhere – in every one and in every thing. Stories, real or imaginary, are written eulogizing god’s victory over various daemons.

Indian culture has male gods and female gods too – for this very purpose. Girls are named, Lakshmi,the goddess of wealth, Sarasvathi, the goddess of learning, Parvathi, the goddess blessing us with all good things and so on.

Can you abuse the goddess of learning, or wealth or one giving us all good things?  Virtually, no one is named – other than with a god’s or goddesses’s name. This – is for the day-to-day living purposes.

But, in the ultimate Vedantha, in the upansihads, what is explicitly stated is -  there is just one single almighty; you are already part of that almighty; and all that you need to do is – to come out of your veil of Maya.

These two angles of view will always be running parallel to each other in everybody’s life, but without contradiction or confusion.

The worldly view is called “vyavahaarika sathya” and the vedanthic view is called “Paarasmarthika sathya”.

Adi Sankaracharya has used almost all names of various gods in his Atma Bodha and other writings, to signify the same Brahman. Had India known the names of god(s) prevailing in other cultures, he would have used those names also – to tell us – that all these names signify the same god.


aatmaupamyena  sarvatra  samam pashyati yorjuna

sukham vaa yadi vaa duhkham sa yogee paramo matah

Oh Arjuna,

the yogi, who, treats all beings equally and as he treats himself, at all times and places, in happiness or in sorrow, that yogi, I consider as supreme.

Can there be a greater prescription for the welfare of the society? Treat all, as you treat yourself. There is no friend, there is no foe – all are equal to you. Not only that. All are as equal to you as you are to yourself.

thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself – said Christ, 2000 years ago.

Thou shalt love all beings as thyself – said Krishna over 5000 years ago.

Both said one and the same thing- but at different places, different times and in different languages.


Yoyam  yogah thvayaa prokthah  saamyena madhusoodhana

etasyaa ham na pashyaami  chanchalathvaath sthithim sthiraam

Now, It is the turn of Arjuna to ask his further doubts and seek clarifications. The beauty of Bhagavad Gita is precisely this. Arjuna’s problems – are not merely his problems. These are our problems too. The teaching to Arjuna is not merely to him. But, to the whole world.

And, Arjuna seeks every type of clarification. He was the greatest warrior of his time. But, internal stability eludes even the very best of people, be he the king or be he the servant.

Arjuna asks – ‘Oh! Krishna, due to the restlessness of my mind, I am unable to perceive the state of stability, and equanimity of this yoga, which you have just spoken about .’

Krishna has spoken a lot about control over desires, moderation in life style, control over mind through the Buddhi, keeping Buddhi in proximity of and in control of the self,  and achieving peace, equanimity and boundless joy in the process.

But, Arjuna is still at step.1. His mind is restless. How to come out of this restlessness? Arjuna is still unsure, whether it is possible to control this restlessness and achieve lasting peace, restfulness and equanimity? Can any man really do it? Is Dhyana Yoga apt for him at this stage?

Arjuna continues with his doubts further..

Verse.34 :

Chanchalam  hi manah Krishhna pramaathi balavadh dridham

tasyaaham  nigraham  manye vaayoriva sudushkaram .

Arjuna now says - Oh Krishna, because mind is so unsteady, turbulent, stubborn, unyielding and strong;in my opinion, its control seems to be as difficult as the control of the wind.

For most persons, this is true. How to control this turbulent mind? You can control a machine. You even try to control other human beings’ behavior (though not their minds). But, your mind is not under your control. This is true for the greatest of persons known to us – all except Yogis.

Ordinary persons will surely find -  control of the wind and control over the mind – both as impossible.

Lord Krishna himself has said this earlier. He also said that don’t expect any quick and easy result. Results will come but in a steady and steadfast manner. Continue your effort.

But, confusion and doubt persists in Arjuna’s mind.

We need to remember what Arjuna said in this doubt. It is highly symbolic. Very truly, in yoga Sasthra, we begin with control over the wind, which means, control over our breathing processes, and end with control over the mind.

Verse.35 :

Asamsayam  mahaabaaho mano durnigraham chalam

abhyaasena thu kauntheya vairaagyena cha grihyathe .

Lord Krishna now begins his answer to Arjuna :

O mighty Armed Arjuna, the son of Great Kunthi!  Without doubt , the mind is restless and difficult to control.

But, by consistent practice, and by controlling of desires with determination,  mind can be controlled.

These are the 2 methods prescribed by all yoga masters, from the most ancient days for mind control.

(a) Abhyaasa, or, consistent practice and
(b) Vairaagya, controlling  desires with determination. In one sense, vairagya can be interpreted as non attachment to desires.

Lord Krishna has already said – do not expect any magical, quick fixes for this problem. Mind will come under your control, slowly but steadily. It will become calmer and peaceful. You will see it, as you practice your mind control and desire control.

The very same methods are repeated much later by Patanjali in his Yoga sutras.

Whether it is Dhyana Yoga from Lord Krishna or Yoga Sutras from Patanjali, both tell us that- yoga means control of the mind.  

Lord Krishna gives soothing and more convincing answers to these questions in coming verses.

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