Monday, December 16, 2013

BHAGAVAD GITA - CHAPTER-1. Arjuna Vishaada Yoga - SLOKA.2 & 3 - - Duryodhana's Inner Turmoil - His SWOT ANALYSIS






Dristvaathu Paandavaaneekam Vyoodham Duryodhanastadaa

Achaaryam Upasamgamya Raajaa Vachanamabraveet ||

Meaning :

Here, Sanjaya has started narrating the happenings in the war-field at Kurukshetra.

Sanjaya said :" Duryodhana looked at the Army of  Pandavas arranged in various battle arrays. Having looked at it, he approached  his Acharya, Drona and began saying the following words." 

Dhritaraashtra will be more interested in knowing what his eldest son, Duryodhana is doing. Therefore, Sanjaya starts his narration with what Duryodhana is doing. Duryodhana is now the acknowledged King of Hastinapur - after the Pandavas lost it in Gambling with im. As per the understanding at that time, Pandavas completed their one year stay in the forests, which is called Aranyavasam and fourteen years of staying incognito, called Ajnaatha Vaasam .

Yet, Duryodhana refused to give them their Kingdom Back, as per the earlier understanding. Therefore, the war has become a reality. Duryodhana has a huge army of 11 Akshouhinis on his side , and Pandavas have, on their side, 7 akshouhinis army. Going by the sheer numbers, Duryodhana's army outnumbers the Pandavas' army by a Huge number.

Duryodhana, as his name implies, is himself  "hard to combat with." And he has a formidable army headed by several Great warriors. Going by these factors, he must have sufficient confidence in winning this war.

But then, he knows that, Pandavas are themselves very Great warriors. Arjuna among them is almost undefeatable by either humans or Gods or demons. Duryodhana's greatest worry in the war is about Arjuna.

Arjuna had defeated the Kauravas headed by Duryodhana already once, in a battle called Uttara Gograhanam. Arjuna had also saved them once from a Gandharva King, when the Gandharvqa King defeated them and enslaved them. Now, Arjuna is even more powerful - having acquired several celestial arms from  Indra, the king of Gods and the most invincible weapon of all, called the Paasupataastra, from Siva himself. 

In a way, he has become more powerful than even his mentors like Drona. The only one who can really face him in a war is the Grand sire, Bhishma. But, in a war between such equals, the outcome is always tantalizingly close. Duryodhana knows this. Therefore, he is not too sure of victory. He wants some assurance from the most dependable, believable veterans in his army. So he goes to his Guru, Drona. Standing by his side, he looks at the Pandava Army, which is arrayed in a particular battle formation (called Vyooha or Vyoodha) - and says the following words to the Guru: 


Pasyaithaam Paanduputraanaam Aachaarya! mahatheem chamoom
Vyoodham Drupada Putrena tava sishyena Dheematha  || 

"O Master, Look at this Great Army of the Pandavas, arrayed against us in a particular way, by your talented student, Dristadyumna, the son of Drupada."

The words used by Duryodhana reflect his inner turmoil and his confused feelings. The Pandava Army has been prepared for war by Dristadyumna, the son of Drupada. 

Incidentally, Dristadyumna was taught all the skills of war by Acharya Drona himself. 

Dristadyumna was the son of Drupada, the bitterest enemy of Acharya Drona. 

Drupada had once humiliated Acharya Drona ridiculing Drona's poverty. But, Arjuna later defeated Drupada, brought him to Drona as his Guru Dakshina and pleased Acharya Drona. Drona, having thus avenged his earlier humiliation, released Drupada from Arjuna's custody and asked him to go and live with some humility now.

Drupada felt very bitter about all these happenings. But, he could never hope to defeat Drona in a war. So, he performed a Great penance, pleased Lord Siva and got a boon. The boon gave him a a son, Dristadyumna, who was born specifically to kill Acharya Drona. It was not that this fact was unknown to Acharya Drona. He knew this. Yet, Drona accepted him as his student and taught him all the Martial arts and skills of War. 

Now, the same, Dristadyumna, the son of Drupada and the student of Acharya Drona, who was born specifically to kill Acharya Drona - is heading the Pandava Army and using all his skills of war to prepare the Pandavas' army in different arrays against Duryodhana's army. 

If only Drona had refused to accept him as his student, this situation might not have arisen. This is the grievance of  King Duryodhana against his Acharya and he is expressing it  in an implied manner.

Though Duryodhana's own army is far bigger, Pandavas' army looks formidable to his eyes. He is now looking at the Great warriors in the Pandava Army. He is looking at the strength of each warrior in Pandava Army and is going to describe them to Acharya Drona. Not that Acharya Drona does not know these facts. He knows very well. It is only Duryodhana who wants to assess the relative strengths of both armies and re-assure himself of his own victory in the ensuing war.

Of course, before beginning a war, it is always good to assess the relative strengths of  one's own army and that of the Opposite formation. Duryodhana who is also battle-savvy, knows all this, and using the occasion to do this assessment - and who else is better than Acharya Drona to share his assessment with? 

In modern times, we have, what is called SWOT ANALYSIS - to assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats - in any combat situation, or for that matter, in any situation preparing ourselves for A Big goal oriented effort.

This is what Duryodhana is going to do now, in the company of Acharya Drona.

.....Will Continue.

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