Wednesday, October 5, 2011
PATANJALI = YOGA SUTRAS = CH.2 : SADHANA PAADHA Vs.24, 25, 26 = MAYA = ITS CAUSE = ITS REMEDY
CHAPTER.2 : SADHANA PAADHA
Vs.24, 25, 26
Our actions follow us in a cycle. Subtle impressions of past actions are imprinted in our mind and they goad us into various actions. On performing the actions, they further leave subtle impressions again in the mind. These impressions further prompt us into further actions.
This cycle of “Subtle Impressions -> Actions -> Subtle Impressions” result in our birth, length of life and the good and bad experiences which we feel in life. Pleasure results to us from our past good and benevolent deeds. Pain and suffering result from our past bad and wicked deeds.
But, the wise man can see sorrow in every thing. The Duhkham experiences are any way Dukham only in the past, present and future. Even the experiences of sukham is preceded by duhkham in its anxious expectation, then, fear of its losing even when it is with us and sorrow for losing it when it is gone.
But, the Duhkham which is already gone is not with us any way. It is not to be worried about. The sorrow now with us also is not much in our hands and we probably will need to suffer from it in the present. The worst sorrow is the sorrow that is yet to come – in future. Because – we can prevent our Future Karma – by our present actions and some planning.
Why do we feel so sorrowful frequently? The main cause of our sorrow is the coming into contact of the pure witness (the seer or the self) with the drisyam, the world of experience, through the manas, Buddhi etc. But, what really is Drisyam? Drisham is the Universe, which we experience – and consists of the Sathva, rajas and Thamas – which make it illuminated, active or inert respectively by their imbalance.
The universe exists for 2 purposes – (i) for experience of Drasta and (ii) for his liberation. Universe is like a training school -where the Karma has to be extinguished by experience – and then, the Drasta can liberate from the experience of the universe.
The universe exists first in its Avyaktha state. There is no way to identify it in the avyaktha state. Then, it comes to the stage of the Mahat or universal intelligence state. In this state, there is some identification for it. From then, it proceeds to the individual intelligence, the subtle elements and then, finally to the gross forms. Thus, the formation of universe from Avyaktha state to identification state, to subtle states to gross states proceeds in a orderly, defined manner.
Drisyam is comprised of all Pancha bhoothas (including all beings in them) and the Indriyaas and is either lustrous, action-oriented or steady. In other words, it is either Sathvic, rajasic or Thamasic.
The Drasta is basically pure, but by his coming together with Drisyam, he appears to take on the virtthis of the Drisyam.
As earlier said, the Drisyam has no other purpose than being there for he experience of Drasta. But, Drastas being many, when one Drasta gets liberated, the Drisyam does not become extinguished. It is needed for experience of other Drastas.
The reality of the Prakrithi and Purusha (or Drisyam and Drasta) become evidenced only when these two come together in Samyoga.
Ø tasya = for that or of that (coming together of Drasta and Drisyam)
Ø hetuh = the cause
Ø avidya = ignorance, veil of Maya
Avidya or ignorance is the cause of Samyoga or the coming together of Drasta and Drisyam. So, Drasta appears to identify with Drisyam.
Actually, Drasta can never become the Drisyam – even after his identification with the Drisyam. But, this identification creates Samsaara – exposing the Drasta to the apparent vulnerability to all dualities like pleasure and pain, heat and cold etc, happiness and unhappiness and so on. This is the Drasta’s experience of Drisyam. But, he must go beyond this experience and liberate him self.
Thath abhaavaath samyoga abhaavah
Haanam thath druseh kaivalyam
Ø thath = its ( of ignorance)
Ø abhaavath = disappearance or absence
Ø samyogah = the identification with or union with(Drisyam)
Ø abhaavah = disappearance or absence
Ø haanam = cessation, avoidance
Ø thath = that
Ø drisheh = of the Drasta; the force of seeing
Ø kaivalyam = liberation, enlightenment
If the avidya or Ignorance disappears, the Samyoga of Drasta and Drisyam ceases immediately. Thereby, the liberation of Drasta happens immediately. The aim of Yoga is to bring this break in the Samyoga of Drasta and Drisyam.
In Samyoga of Drasta with Drisyam - Drasta identify himself with Maya; and Maya gains control over him. Drasta becomes subject to all of its Samsaara (miseries and sorrows) and all of its dualities.
The Drasta is, in reality, never affected by this birth, growth, decay and death cycle of the body-mind complex or of the external Prakrithi – but the veil of Maya causes this feeling.
In Samyoga – Prakrithi or Maya appears to become the master and control the Drasta. When this Samyoga is broken – Drasta regains his mastery – and attains liberation from Maya, which has been the cause of all his misery and sorrow.
Maya is actually spread all over the Universe. Yogi need not conquer this entire Maya. He only needs to conquer the Maya within – that Maya which is acting perpetually within his own body-mind complex. Once he conquers that inner Maya and frees himself from that inner Maya – the rest of the universe also salutes him and becomes his slave. For this reason only, Patanjali has said right at the beginning that “ yoga is chittha vritthi nirodhah”.
Conquering the universe is neither feasible nor necessary. But, conquering the chittha vritthi, which is the Maya within – is the only thing that we need to achieve.
For all practical purposes – when the Chittha is controlled, the body also comes under one’s control, for, body, is just the gross form and chittha the subtle form of the inner Maya. The rest of the universe is merely an extension of the body-mind complex. That also will start obeying the Drasta when this happens.
aviplavaa haana upaaayah
Ø viveka = discriminative ability; discerning the right
Ø khyaathih = correct awareness
Ø aviplava = undisturbed
Ø haana = cessation, avoidance
Ø upayah = the method
Viveka is the discriminative ability - the ability to see the right from the wrong, the permanent from the impermanent, the real joy from Samsaara and so on. This is also called Nitya-anitya vivekaha.
This viveka must remain in our awareness permanently in an undisturbed manner. This means – at any point of time – are you aware – whether you are pursuing permanent joy or the impermanent Sukha, the liberation path or the Samsaara path and so on?
Stead fast adherence to this nitya-anitya viveka is what leads to cessation of the impermanent or the Samsaara – and thereby liberation occurs automatically. Be aware of the permanent and pursue it vigorously and incessantly – says Patanjali. The Purusha or the Drasta is infinite joy in himself and does not have to search for it in Prakrithi, which is impermanent and finite.
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