Friday, March 29, 2013





KAIVALYA PAADHA essentially deals with how the state of Samadhi transforms us.  It is a pointer to its essential characteristics. The following sutras deal with how karma arises, what are vasanas and what are their nature.


karma ashukla akrisnam
yoginah trividham itaresam

Ø  karma = actions arising from our deep samskaras
Ø  ashukla = not white
Ø  akrisnam = not black
Ø  yoginah = of the yogi
Ø  trividham = three types
Ø  itaresam = of the others

Actions of all Human beings are called karmas. They arise from  vasanas, which are deep, innate, in-built impressions or deep rooted tendencies or habits which prompt us to go in for different karmas, again and again.

They urge, drive, command and force us to go in and do this, or that action, though most of us fail to recognize them as the our inbuilt vasanas.

These actions can be good, bad or a third type which is neither good nor bad.

But, a Yogi’s actions do not arise from the old, innate vasanas (tendencies) or as karma phalam. Therefore they are neither good nor bad, neither pure nor impure.

Yogi goes on doing his work - without seeking its fruit to himself. When the karma phalam is not desired by him for himself, the karma itself does not bind him as sin(paap) or good (Punya).

But the actions of all others are guided by their desires; and they do desire the karma phalam of their actions. Therefore, such karma phalam attaches to them either as punya, or as papa or as neutral works which are neither punya nor papa.

When Yogis like Mahatma Gandhi, Vivekananda, Ramana Maharshi do great deeds of help to mankind, they are not desiring any return from their deeds to themselves. Therefore, the results of actions do not really touch them.
Their every action is independent of past vasanas or tendencies.

Vs. 4.08

tatah tath vipaaka anugunaanaam
eva abhivyaktih vaasanaanaam

Ø  tatah = from that
Ø  tath = that
Ø  vipaaka = fruition
Ø  anugunaanaam = following
Ø  eva = only
Ø  abhivyaktih = manifest
Ø  vaasanaanaam = innate potencies

Karma (action), the creation of its vasanas in our mind, and the vasanas propelling us into karma of a similar type that created the vasana – these go on occurring in our minds in cycles. This is a karmic cycle.

Why do we do a particular type of good, bad or neutral type deed? Because, vasanas of the same type are holding our mind in their power and urging our mind to act in the same or similar manner again and again.

When we again do a karma on their influence, that karma again creates further vasanas relating to it, which join their similar vasanas already in our minds and strengthens the

These strengthened vasanas again propel us into similar deeds, which create similar vasanas again; which go out and join their predecessor vasanas again.

Thus karmic cycle goes on and on – until an awareness dawns on us.

Vs. 4.09

Jaati - desa - kaala – vyavahitaanaam
api anantaryam smriti samskarayoh
eka rupatvat

Ø  jaati = category of life form
Ø  desa = place
Ø  kaala = point of time
Ø  vyavahitaanaam = being clear and distinct
Ø  api = though
Ø  anantaryam = continuous sequence
Ø  smriti = memory
Ø  samskaarayoh = deep impressions or habits,
Ø  eka-rupatvaat = because of their similarity

Our vasanas do not leave us merely because we go to a different place; stay in a different period or even become a living being of a different type.

In other words, our changing a residence from one place to another is not going to remove our innate habits or vasanas. When we grow older and older, the time changes, but our vasanas become stronger, because, vasanas result in karma, which further creates vasanas, which results in strengthening the already existing vasanas in us.

Even if we die and take re-birth in a different shape, like an animal, bird, or in a different human race, our vasanas come along with us – as if they are a continuity. We carry them along wherever we go. So, even in an animalistic birth, our innate habits will again continue to reflect in us in some way or other

Habits don’t die, even when we do.

But all hope is not lost. A bit of awareness in all that we do – will bring in a huge change in  this pattern.

Vs. 4.10

taasaam anaaditvam cha
aasisah nityatvaat

Ø  taasaam = for these
Ø  anaaditvam = there is no beginning
Ø  cha = and
Ø  aasisah = desire to live
Ø  nityatvat = permanent

When did the desires start in us?

No way to tell. Desires started is us – when we started our life journey. They are born along with us. It emanates from our will to live.

When did the vasanas start in us? When the first desire started in us.

When was that? When we were created; when we started our life.

All this means that – they are beginningless.

But then, do the desires  have an END?

Patanjali has only said, desires and their innate vasanas have no beginning. But, He has not said that they do not have an END.

If we recognize the nature and consequences of desire, vasanas, and the consequent karmas and karmaphalam – Patanjali shows us the way out of their cycle. Samadhi is essentially intended to end this cycle.

*  *  *  E  N  D  *  *  *

Wednesday, March 27, 2013




In sutra.1, we have seen that exotic powers called Siddhis come to different people either from birth itself (which means inheritance from previous birth); or, through certain rare herbs, or, through recitation of certain mantras, or, through tapas (penance) ; or finally through Samadhi, which is the eighth step in Ashtanga Yoga elucidated in yoga sutras.

In sutra.2, Patanjali stated that one can transform into a different species by filling in the nature with appropriate means.First, changes coming in current species need to be stopped and then altered through nature to transform into different species.

In sutra.3, the exact effect of Karma theory is explained. People perform good and bad karmas in course of their life. Part of their effect is inherited from karmas of previous births too. The effect of all these karmas is only to break the obstacles and barriers in our path – allowing nature to fully flower in us into its complete potential.

We will now move on to see how ego, or, the I-feeling affects our immediate present and future.


nirmaana chittaani asmitaa maatraat

Ø  nirmaana = created, constructed
Ø  chittaani = mind-fields
Ø  asmitaa = I-ness or Ego
Ø  matraat = only

All minds that we experience normally are artificially constructed or built-up minds only – and ‘we’ are their unconscious constructors. These are not our original, pure minds.

All these artificially constructed minds have actually evolved from our ego or the feeling of I-ness.

This Ego stands at the center of the artificial minds and goes on inflating the artificial minds in all directions.

This artificial, constructed minds create thoughts, feelings, relationships, societies to live-in, our mutual likes and dislikes and our whole life pattern.

Our mind-fields consisting of all of our thoughts, memories, feelings etc are all constructed by our asmita or Ego identity only. The I-ness in us is directly responsible for all of our sinful and sacred acts. Likewise, all of our thoughts and memories spring from this I-ness thought only.

But, Yogi can construct the type of I-ness identities that serve him well in his endeavours from the same Asmitha itself.

Behind all created mind-fields, there is also a mind-field, which is original and not created by our Egos. We have come to this world with this uncreated, original mind-field. The whole effort of Sadhaka is to reach the clean slate of this uncreated, original mind-field.

But, How does the ego-fields exhibit themselves? And how are they to be overcome?

Vs. 4.5

pravritti bhede prayojakam chittam ekam anekeshaam

Ø  pravritti = activity; what is actually done by Chitta
Ø  bhede = differences
Ø  prayojakam = causing
Ø  chittam = mind-field
Ø  ekam = one
Ø  anekeshaam = many

The ego-centred and ego-based mind-fields that the Sadhaka constructs consciously, to serve him may exhibit diverse tendencies and may look like many mind-fields. But, in reality, there is a single root mind-field behind all of them, which controls all these diverse external expressions or mind-fields.

This means, we have come with an original mind-field, which is the real controller behind all the diverse mind-fields that the EGO goes on creating.

Vs. 4.6

tatra dhyana jam anaasayam

Ø  tatra = among these
Ø  dhyana = meditation
Ø  jam = born
Ø  anaasayam = free from past, stored impressions

When the constructed mind-fields are many, amongst them, the one born out of Meditation is the one which is free from the Karmic impressions of the past. In fact, in meditation, we dissolve all other mind-fields.

Only one original mind, with which we are born cannot be dissolved by us in mediation. It is the purest, in which we find no further reflections of other mind-fields.

From childhood, all impressions that were absorbed by us as different mind-fields, will have to be dissolved, just as we peel of layers of onion skin, to find nothing remaining at the end of the peeling process.

The original mind has neither any  past impressions in it nor has it anything about the future. The whole process of meditation to attain kaivalya is to dissolve these past and future impressions constantly and keep the mind steady in its original state.

All thinking stops in this process. Because, all thinking essentially relates you to either the past or the future but not to the reality of the present. Even the future is nothing but a projection of all past experiences into the future. Nothing exists in the future without a basis from the past. If past is got rid of, future also dissolves, because, it loses all of its past base.

If both the past and the future lose their appeal for the mind and dissolve from its attention – then the present arises forcefully, beautifully like an eternity in itself.

In the present, all desires vanish. We need to recognize that all desires essentially pertain to future. They neither pertain to past nor to the present.

When the meditation is only on the present – mind-field becomes totally devoid of any karma. It will be the original one you got at birth; it will be devoid of desires.

All meditation must be done in a very, relaxed, playful way, because, all seriousness relates to and comes along with the past. Leave all seriousness. Keep playful, pleasant and unburdened by past and future. Then, Meditation becomes real and easy. Then, Meditation frees the Mind from any of the remaining desires in it easily.

 *  *  *  E  N  D  *  *  *